Tall Armenian Tale


The Other Side of the Falsified Genocide


  Documents On Ottoman-Armenians, Volume III  
First Page


Major Players
Links & Misc.



Mahmut Ozan
Edward Tashji
Sam Weems

"...[T]hese records were at the time compiled for strictly internal use, i.e. for in-house consideration, and were not intended for public consumption, [so that] one may be reasonably safe in declaring the evidence obtained thusly as incontestable."

Vahakn Dadrian
was not entirely on the mark when he referred to internal German-government reports as "incontestable" (in his "signal facts" article from 2003); the people who prepare such reports could, after all, be mistaken from time to time. However, what is incontestable is that internal reports are prepared largely with honest intent, and may be generally accepted as trustworthy.

The TAT site has stressed Western and Armenian sources to turn the genocide myth on its ear, since these parties were raised with anti-Turkish sentiments, and had no reason to defend the Turks — very much opposed to the sources demonstrating a genocide, who had every reason to be untruthful, or conned by beloved Armenians whispering in their ears. Now, however, it is time for a change.

It would be absurd to write about a nation's history by exclusively relying upon what the enemies of a nation had to say. Yet that is exactly how the "facts" for the "Armenian genocide" have been compiled. Now we can understand with better clarity why Armenian and genocide scholars can be such frauds.

Prof. Justin McCarthy exposes the likes of these propagandists:

Why rely on Ottoman archival accounts to write history? Because they are the sort of solid data that is the basis of all good history. The Ottomans did not write propaganda for today's media. The reports of Ottoman soldiers and officials were not political documents or public relations exercises. They were secret internal reports in which responsible men relayed what they believed to be true to their government. They might sometimes have been mistaken, but they were never liars. There is no record of deliberate deception in Ottoman documents. Compare this to the dismal history of Armenian Nationalist deceptions: fake statistics on population, fake statements attributed to Mustafa Kemal, fake telegrams of Talat Pasha, fake reports in a Blue Book, misuse of court records and, worst of all, no mention of Turks who were killed by Armenians.

What you will be reading below, time after time after time, clearly demonstrate Armenian treachery and belligerence, and the Ottomans' attempts to perform their governmental duty to preserve order. The reports also demonstrate, far from having it in for the Armenians, that the Ottomans attempted to safeguard Armenian lives and properties. In short, they demonstrate that the concept of "genocide" has no basis in reality.

These documents come courtesy of the Turkish "Military History Documents Magazine," and were compiled into three separate volumes by the Turkish "Directorate General of Press and Information," translated into English and French, for distribution on the world stage (wonder how far that effort got?). The names of these books were "Documents I," "Documents on Ottoman Armenians - II" and "...III," and published in 1982, 1983 and 1986, respectively. The Ottoman originals were also included in these books, where they may be accessed in the .PDF file version of these books, made available on the University of Louisville's web site: Vol. 1, Vol. 2, and Vol. 3.

An average of a quarter-century has passed since these volumes first appeared, and yet it appears no Turkish person, governmental or civilian, has taken the trouble to make these very valuable documents available on the Internet. Isn't that incredible?

What is below has been faithfully reproduced for the most part (for example, retaining the quaint British spelling), but some errors in English have been corrected.


No :
            Date of Document              S u b j e c t

1)   1996(143) November 30/December 1, 1914 Acting Governor of Van, Cevdet Bey's report to the Ministry of the Interior regarding his talks with Armenians on possible incidents in Van and dispatching people to Bitlis as a result of the Russian advance.

2) 1997 (144) February 25, 1915 German Private Otto Fensher's letter in German on the Armenian cruelties and other events he witnessed since he was wounded and taken prisoner of war by Russians in Eastern Germany on December 27, 1914.

3) 1998(145) February 25, 1915 Report by the 5th Army Command to the Ministry of Defence on the explosion of a bomb made by Armenians and uncovering of a substantial amount of explosives and weapons hidden in Armenian cemeteries.

4) 1999(146) February 26, 1915 Enver Pasha's instructions to commanders regarding the powers they will have and the measures to be taken in case of an Armenian revolt, as a result of Armenian attacks against the gendarmerie in Bitlis, Halep and Dortyol and the uncovering of code groups and bombs in Armenian houses in Kayseri.

5) 2000(147) February 27, 1915 Telegram from the Provincial Authority of Adana to the Directorate General of Security, Ministry of the interior, on an investigation revealing that some Armenians had been armed to kill the Turks and cooperating with the enemy.

6) 2001(148) April 14, 1915 Coded message requesting measures to prevent the spread of Armenian incidents in Mus and Bitlis, evidently instigated by the enemy countries.

7) 2002(149) Telegram from the 10th Army Corps Command to the Acting Supreme Command, informing the underground foundation of the Armenian Tashnak Society in Sivas with the aim of creating unrest behind the battle lines.

8) 2003(150) April 22/23, 1915 Coded message from Cevdet Bey, Governor of Van, reporting that Armenians revolted in Van, burned the city, and that intensive clashes were going on.

9) 2004(151) May 22, 1915 Report to the Acting Supprerne Command on the result of investigations carried out upon the allegations of the Armenian Patriarchate of cruelties against the Armenians in Sivas, Van, Erzincan and Erzurum.

10)2005(152) April 24, 1915 Commander of the Van Mobile gendarmerie Division, Karm Bey's message on the Russian advance toward Kotor and efforts by Armenian gangs in Iran to infiltrate into Van, taking advantage of the Armenian uprising.

11)2006(153) May 22, 1915 Telegram based on translation of a news item from "Asbarer", a newspaper in the U.S.A., reporting that Armenian gang leader Antranik joined Russian Commander Chernoroyof's division and that he receives financial support from the U.S.A.

12)2007(154) May 27, 1915 Minutes of interrogation of an Armenian army deserter on manufacture of bombs in Armenian houses and shops.

13)2008(155) June 11, 1915 Statement by Abraham who claims to be a Syriac, regarding information on the Russian and Armenian forces in Tabriz, Aras and Van and the aspirations of the Armenians.

14)2009(156) June 29, 1915 Telegram from the Governor of Erzurum, reporting clashes between an Armenian gang and Tevfik Efendi Detachment.

15)2010(157) July 2, 1915 Telegram by Acting Governor of Karahisar and Special Forces Commander to the 3rd Army Command reporting the message of surrendering by the Armenians and the reply given.

16)201 l(l58) July 20, 1915 Lazistan Commander Avni Pasha's message that gendarmerie forces clash with over 300 armed Armenians in the Ordu region.

17)2012(159) July 22, 1915 Report informing the Acting Supreme Command of the measures taken as a result of the Armenian incidents in Karahisar. Ordu, Midyat, and Cizre.

18)2013(160) August 4, 1915 Army Corps Commander Suleyman Faik Pasha's telegram to the 3rd Army Command regarding the crushing of the Armenian uprising in Midyat and its vicinity.

19)2014(161) August 2/3, 1915 Governor of Sivas, Muammer Bey's message on revolting Armenians.

20)2015(162) August 4, 1915 10th Army Corps Commander Pertev Bey's message on clashes with armed Armenians who took shelter in a house in Niksar

21)2016(163) September 2, 1915 Communications Inspector informs the 3rd Army Command that the veterinarian of the 89th Regiment joined the Armenian gangs.

22)2017(164) September 29, 1915 Telegram by the District Administration of Urfa to the Ministry of Interior regarding the Armenian uprising in the town.

23)2018(165) September 26, 1915 Gendarmerie General Command's report to the Ministry of Defence on the formation of a commission for investigations on civil servants and gendarmes who allegedly abused their powers during the relocation of the Armenians.

24)2019(166) October 3, 1915 October 5, 1915 Report by Head of the Tortum Conscription Office on the Armenian cruelties in Narman, Tortum and their vicinity since the War of 1877-1878.

25)2020(167) Report by District Administration of Urfa on the Armenian uprising in the town and the measures to be taken.

26)2021(168) November 11, 1915 Governor of Erzurum reports the 3rd Army Command that grenades were found in an Armenian house.

27)2022(169) March 21, 1916 Message by the 3rd Army Command to the Acting Supreme Command, reporting Turks were taken to unknown premises by the Armenians who commit other atrocities.

28)2023(170) April 3, 1916 Colonel Halil Sami, Conscription Dept. Chief of the 5th Army Corps reports to the Ministry of Defence that great number of armed Armenians are perpetrating atrocities in Akdagmadeni.

29)2024(171) March 15, 1917 Instructions by Cemal Pasha, 4th Army Commander, for purchasing the possessions of the relocated Armenians at their real values so that the Armenians would not lose money.

30)2025(172) May 10, 1917 Caucasian Army Group Commander Ahmet lzzet Pasha's message to the Acting Supreme Command, reporting atrocities against the Moslems in Erzincan by the Armenians who receive Russian support and requesting political initiatives to end the cruelties.

31) 2026(173) December 11, 1918 Ottoman Caucasian Armies Commander Vehip Pasha's letter to Russian Caucasian Army Commander General Odeshelidje for stopping the Armenian atrocities in Erzincan, Sarikamis Bayburt, Rize and Trabzon.  

32)2027(174) February 12, 1918 3rd Army Commander Vehip Pasha's report to the Acting Supreme Command on Armenian atrocities in the occupied territories.  

33) 2028(175) February 17, 1918 Copies of the letters on Armenian cruelties sent to Russian generals Odeshelidje and Lebedinsky by 3rd Army Commander Vehip Mehmet Pasha.

34) 2029(176) February 21, 1918 Ottoman Caucasian Armies Commander Vehip Mehmet Pasha's reply to Russian Caucasian Army Commander General Liyotnan Odeshelidje's letter on continuing Armenian atrocities.

35) 2030(177) February 21, 1918 Statements by Russian Captain Kazmir, Russian Private Alexander and a Russian woman named Pas regarding the Armenian atrocities they witnessed in Erzincan.

36) 2031(178) February 23, 1918 1st Caucasian Army Corps Commander Kazim Karabekir's telegram to the 3rd Army Command regarding operations against the Armenian revolts who retreated after burning down Mamahatun and its vicinity

37)2032(179) February 23, 1918 3rd Army Command's report to the Acting Supreme Command, Thunderbolt Group Command and 4th Army and 6th Army Commands regarding Mamahatun and other places liberated by the Turkish forces and the Armenian atrocities in these towns.  

38) 2033(180) March 3, 1918 Enver Pasha's instructions to the 3rd Army Command regarding his requests to be conveyed to the Russian Caucasian Army Command for prevention of the Armenian atrocities.

39) 2034(181) May 7, 1918 Petition by Kagizman Branch Chairman, Moslem Charity Society of Baku, to the 36th Caucasian Division on Armenian cruelties against the Moslems in the Erivan region.

40)2035(182) Memorandum issued by the 3rd Army Command to the Armenian Government on arrangement of migrations in line with the articles of the treaty signed between the Ottoman Government and Armenian delegates.

41)2036(183) June 29, 1918 9th Division Command's message to the 1st Caucasian Army Corps Command requesting initiative for permission for the Moslems of Erivan to migrate to Turkey and the prevention of Armenian atrocities.

42)2037(184) June 28, 1918 Eastern Armies Commander's message to the Acting Speaker of the Armenian Assembly regarding Armenian atrocities in Alexanderpole and Ahilkelek against the Moslem people.

43)2038(185) December 27, 1918 9th Army Command's coded message to the Ministry of Defence requesting contacts with representatives of the Allies in istanbul to put an end to the Armenian atrocities against Moslems in Erivan, Nahcivan and their vicinity.

44) 2039(186) December 28, 1918 Requests from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to end the Armenian massacres of the Moslem population following the evacuation of Igdir by Ottoman Forces, through the mediation of Allies and neutral governments.

45)2040(187) January 4, 1919 9th Army Command's message to the Ministry of Defence noting that Armenian atrocities in Serdarabat, Erivan and other region would go on unless stopped by the mediation of the Allied Countries.

46)2041(188) January 6, 1919 9th Army Command's message to the Ministry of Defence indicating that attacks against the Turkish officers in Batum by Greek and Armenian volunteers can be stopped through orders by the British Command of Batum.

47)2042(189) January 21, 1919 Report by 9th Army Command to the Ministry of Defence on Armenian attacks and massacres in Arpaqay.

48)2043(190) July 27, 1919 Report by 5th Army Corps Command to the Ministry of Defence on important articles of British Representative Rawlinson's message to the British General Headquarters in Istanbul regarding Armenian atrocities in the border region from Oltu to Dogu Beyant.

49)2044(191) August 26/27, 1919 Message by 15th Army Corps to the Ministry of Defence noting that the Armenian Dashnak Society, supported by the Armenian Government, attempts to annihilate all Moslems in Sarikamis, Igdir, Revan and Aras regions.

50)2045(192) March 7, 1920 Official telegram sent to Admiral Bristol and Allied representatives in Istanbul denying allegations of Armenian genocide in Anatolia.

51)2046(193) March 7, 1920 Telegram by 3rd Army Corps Command to Ministries of Defence and Foreign Affairs, noting that Armenian atrocities in Hacin Feke and Adana regions made the population extremely anxious.

52)2047(194) October 23, 1920 Lists of the villages burned and destroyed and of names of Turks massacred by the Armenians in one year.



The third issue of the "Military History Documents Magazine" containing documents compiled from the archives of the Military History and Strategic Studies Department of the Turkish General Staff has been published recently. These documents demonstrate and exhibit the inhumane attitudes and behaviours of the Armenians in Anatolia and the killings, massacres and other atrocities they had committed against the Ottoman State and its Turkish subjects between 1914 and 1920.

Previously, the 81st and 83rd editions of the "Military History Documents Magazine" devoted to this subject were published by the Directorate General of Press and Information in English and French as "Documents I", "Documents on Ottoman Armenians - II". "Documents I" and "Documents Sur Les Armeniens Ottomans - II". These books were distributed to important centers in the world and particularly in Europe through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. We hope and believe that this edition of our magazine would also be translated into English and French and distributed abroad as well.

We, the Military History and Strategic Studies Department of the Turkish General Staff, will try to compile and present to the world public opinion on certain intervals all documents on this issue that we have in our archives.

The basic principle we honour in our studies is certainly neither to revive the hatred and enmity of the past through unilateral exaggerations nor to make public opinion unnecessarily sensitive regarding this issue.

Our purpose is to demonstrate and prove with documents the unfounded and fabricated nature of the so-called Armenian allegations which have been deceiving world public opinion particularly during the last few years. Although various documents prove beyond doubt that the Armenians, receiving support from foreign circles, set up innumerable organizations of revolt, armed gangs and death squads against Moslem Turks and perpetrated inhumane attacks and atrocities against the Turks, a community they had lived together with for centuries in peace, prosperity and security, during the First World War and ever since the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878, we would like to forget all such violent incidents for: our aims is merely to demonstrate the baselessness of the allegations of the so-called genocide of the Armenians by the Turks.

We have again included an introduction for the general interpretation of the documents we are presenting in our publication.

Major General lhsan SAKARYA (Retired) compiled the documents in this publication from the archives of the Military History and Strategic Studies Departmen1 of the Turkish General Staff. Colonel Niyazi ARTAN (Retired) transliterated these documents from Ottoman Turkish into modern Turkish. Colonel Dr. Yucel AKTAR (Education Corps) and First Lieutenant Faruk AYIN (Education Corps) rearranged, revised and edited the texts for publication.

Lt. General (Air Force)
Chairman. Military History
and Strategic Studies
Department, TGS


Beginning from the 18th century, the question of partition of the Ottoman territories among the European countries following a possible disintegration of the Empire, which was the main goal, constituted the "Eastern Question" in the European diplomatic circles. The "Armenian Question" arose as an extension of the overall "Eastern Question." Following the "Cyprus Peace Operations" on July 20, 1974, certain circles reintroduced the "Armenian Question" with the objective of impairing the Turkish Republic. To this end, the issue has been exploited a great deal during the last few years and continuous efforts have been exerted to keep this issue hot.

The European powers had waged a constant struggle to keep under direct or indirect control the strategically important regions of the Ottoman Empire, a semi-colony about to be disintegrated, and created artificial problems by using the Ottoman minorities in order to gain an advantage over their rivals.

This is the basis of the "Armenian Question", which has been much exploited and exaggerated since the 19th century.

The "Armenian Question", a natural product of the ambition to rule the world, was ornamented with so-called humane motives based on exploitation and reintroduced into the attention of a sensitive public opinion just after the First World War broke out. In this regard, the inhumane attitudes and actions of the Armenians, who were Ottoman subjects as well, and the massacres and atrocities they perpetrated against the Turkish people in Anatolia during the First World War were misevaluated by some Western writers on purpose. The facts had been distorted and consequently there came into being the supposition that the Armenians had been subjected to a genocide by the Turks.

Another point persistently emphasized during the cowardly murders of Turkish diplomats by the Armenians in recent years is the demand for the recognition of the so-called genocide by the Turkish Republic.

For this reason, it is necessary, in the first place, to examine the definition of the word "genocide." As was pointed out in the 83rd edition of the "Military History Documents Magazine", genocide is the "premeditated and indiscriminate annihilation of all individuals of an unarmed and defenceless community."

However, many documents on Armenians published in the 81st and 83rd editions as well as documents No. 1998 (145), 1999 (146), 2000 (147), 2003 (150), 2006 (153), 2007 (154). 2011 (158), 2021 (168), 2031 (178), etc. that appear in the current edition prove beyond doubt that the Armenians living in Anatolia or elsewhere had been engaged in an armed revolt against the Ottoman state.

For this reason, it is necessary, in the first place, to examine the definition of time as a "revolt" of the Armenians and the measures taken by the Ottoman State through the use of the legal power of the imperium, rather than calling them a one-sided genocide.

Documents prove that Armenians, just like during the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878 (Document No. 2019 (166)) were to betray the Ottoman State and stab it in the back (83rd Edition, Document No. 1894) during the First World War as well. For this reason, it is both illogical and irrational to define the legal measures taken for maintaining order as a genocide against Armenians.

As a matter of fact, the Ottoman rulers, despite the continuing war, felt it was necessary to take measures for the civil servants and the gendarmes (Document No. 2018 (165)) not to abuse their authority against the Armenians due to emotional reasons, rather than conduct a genocide.

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were elevated to important positions which could not be attained by minorities in other countries. They became Ministers of the Royal Treasury, Foreign Affairs, and Post and Telegraph, and Ambassadors to London, The Hague and Brussels. Even the administration of the Royal Ordnance Factories, one of the most critical institutions in the Empire, belonged to the Armenians for 140 years. Leaving aside prejudices of all sorts, it is not possible to prove or document that the Turks had conducted a genocide against the Armenians, and particularly against the women, the elderly and the children.

On the contrary, the documents in this publication exhibit the hostile actions of the Armenians against the state and the Turkish community, with whom they had been living in peace. For instance, one can easily say that throughout the whole duration of the War, the Armenians worked against the Ottoman state, set up secret organizations to facilitate the enemy advance, created unrest behind the front (Document No. 2002 (149) and 2004 (151)) and hence conclude that the enemy, taking advantage of the Armenian actions occupied certain regions quite easily (Document No. 2005 (152)).

During that period, Armenian collaboration with the enemy - the Russians in particular - and substantial Armenian forces joining the enemy appeared in the foreign press as well (Document No. 2006 (153)).

Those who constantly talk about the so-called Armenian genocide in Anatolia without any scientific or documentary basis, should pay particular attention to the following facts:

-Armenians armed themselves, manufactured bombs of various sorts, and stocked them for future use. (Document No. 1999 (146), 2007 (154)).

- Armenians set up numerous gangs throughout Anatolia, and apart from individual attacks, usurpations and murders, disguised themselves as soldiers and in groups of 500 to 600 bandits, attacked the Turkish units, and burned and destroyed towns and villages (Document No. 2003 (150), 201 1 ( I S ) , 2012 (159), 2023 (170)).

- Even the foreigners pointed out the cruelties, tortures, and the vulgar attacks that the Turks were subjected to (Document No: 1997 (144), 2030 (177)).

-The revolting Armenians used the most sophisticated weapons of the time, including artillery guns, bombs, and machine guns (Document No. 2014 (161), 2031 (178)).

-The numbers of Turkish villages pillaged and destroyed and of innocent Turks raped and killed as a result of the Armenian cruelties in Anatolia are very high (Document No. 2019 (166). 2047 (194)).

- The Ottoman Caucasian Armies Command corresponded with the Commander in-Chief, Russian Caucasian Armies with the aim of preventing the Armenians from attacking and massacring the Turks in the eastern regions (Document No. 2026 (173), 2029 (176)).

- When the Armenian cruelties reached extreme proportions, Enver Pasha personally applied to the Russian Caucasian Armies Command, requesting measures to put an end to the massacres (Document No. 2033 (180)).

In presenting this publication to the attention of the public, we hope that it would enlighten the people with commonsense and those who still think that the Armenians had been subjected to a so-called genocide.

Dr. Yücel Aktar
(Education Corps)

DOCUMENT NO: 1996 (143)

Ministry of Interior
Directorate General of Security
Number: 1290

Copy of the Decoded Message Received from the Office of the Governor of the Province of Van

Very Urgent

I had talks with the Armenian elite. I explained the general situation on the appropriate occasions. I told them that any incident between the Armenians and the Moslems would certainly affect all the Armenians living in Ottoman territories. I pointed out that conditions to be created by possible clashes in regions like this one which would not affect the final outcome of the battles, would quickly change. I realized that it was not possible to get good results, for exaggerations made by the tribes on the current situation frighten the Moslem population. I am taking great care to prevent the Armenians from provoking incidents. Since the enemy advanced from "Kotor" and some tribes submitted to the foe, I do not think that the Gendarmerie division will be able to put up a long resistance. Therefore, I will begin to send the families to Bitlis.
November 30/December 1, 1914

Acting Governor
Actual Certified Copy
18 (December 1) dated
(Directorate General of Security)
M/4713 Section: l Secret / 1290

To Section 2
To be returned
(Not clear)

Translated/l8 dated
Signature (Mehmet Celal)
To Section I

Hereby returned. December 1, 1914
Signature (Kazim Karabekir)
To Tahsin Bey Dated 18
Signature (Hifzi)

Archive No : 1/1
Cabin No : 169
Drawer No : 1
File No : 4
Section No : 23-A
Index No : 4

DOCUMENT NO: 1997 (144)

"My escape from Russia.

My name is Otto Fensher. l am from the 141st Infantry Regiment based in "Graddensi". 1 was wounded and taken prisoner of war by the Russians on December 27, 1914 in Eastern Prussia. The Russians took me to a hospital in "Olbolinsk". After staying there for six weeks, I was told that my health was satisfactory and later I was sent to Siberia. They were paying us a daily wage of 10 kapiks to meet our essential needs. We were very hungry and cold. Our complaints in this regard were turned down by the guards who were saying: "the German pigs must endure everything." Such unfit treatment by the Russians greatly hurt our feelings and our patience was running out. Many of my friends resolved to escape. Approximately 200 of us were kept in a shed. There was a building for P.O.W. officers next to our shed. The Austrian POW's who were kept with us also shared the idea of escaping from the prison camp. The first attempt of a prison escape was made on April 20, 1915. There were six of us trying to escape, two German officers, two Austrian cadets, a major sergeant and myself. We went as far as the town of "Onkoten" near the border. We were planning to make the escape from the Romanian border. There, we had to cross a river. We decided that the officers should go first. The officers crossed the river. An enemy patrol opened fire on us while we were about to make our escape. We had to stop. After a while we were caught and subjected to outrageous maltreatment. The guards beat and whipped us. We were sent from one prison to the other. Finally, the Russian Revolution came to our assistance as well. The hour of our freedom was near once again. We were ready to take advantage of the first opportunity as soon as possible. We were lucky in this respect. We came across suitable opportunities that would facilitate our escape. During the revolution, we were in the city of "Astrahan" on the Volga river. We were able to survive due to the fact that the Russian government granted us permission to work as laborers in the city. We took this opportunity immediately. First of all, we got acquainted with our fellow countrywomen, who were the victims of the war. During their invasion of Eastern Prussia, the Russians brought with them many young girls to Russia. We had mutual feelings to help each other. The Russians sent 80 German and Russian prisoners, including myself, to Tiflis to work. There, I started again to look for an opportunity to escape. Actually, I bought the clothes and the pass of a Russian who was born in Germany and I boarded a train posing as a Russian soldier. This train took me to Sarikamis. I witnessed for the first time the Armenian atrocities imposed on the Turks at the Sarikamis Train Station. Around 10 Turkish soldiers were busy carrying wood near the station. Since it had rained the day before, the work could not be done fast enough. For this reason, an Armenian supervising the Turkish soldiers, began to curse at them. Then he hit one of the Turks with a club and the poor man died on the spot. I left Sarikamis and went to Karaurgan. This small town is 30 kilometers from Sarlkamis. I stayed in Karauryan for three days. There I once again witnessed the Armenian atrocities against the Turks. The landlord of the house I was staying in was a 'Turk. He complained that the Armenians were searching his home at least twice a week, seizing what they thought was valuable and beating the household under a variety of pretexts. I took advantage of the narrow gauge railroad in Karaurgan and travelled to Erzurum. I stayed in Erzurum for one week. The city was in ruins. All the mosques were turned into depots and public baths. 'The Turks were not allowed in the streets after 8 o'clock in the evenings. One night I saw three Armenians raping a Turkish girl. When the girl began to scream, one of the Armenians killed her with a knife. I found a policeman nearby and told him what happened. He went to the scene of the murder, and after finding out that the murdered girl was a Turk, he just shook his shoulders and said: "It is no big deal. She was Turkish. All Turks must be destroyed." Then I departed from Erzurum to go to Mamahatun. On my way, I saw many Turkish prisoners breaking up stones. They wanted tobacco and bread from me. I went inside a Turkish shop in Mamahatun. I bought a few cans of food. Meanwhile, an Armenian officer came into the shop. He took around twelve cans of food. He asked the shopkeeper the price. When the shopkeeper said it was 27 rubles, the Armenian officer began to swear at him and left the shop without paying. The shopkeeper told me that this was the usual practice and that the Armenians did not pay for the goods they bought. A few days later, I went to Iresenson by car. The driver told me that the Kurds had attacked an Armenian battalion at the front a few days ago and that the Armenians had retreated from their original positions in the beginning. He said that as a result of the counter attack by the support forces sent by the Russians, the Kurds had to retreat as well. He also told me that the Armenians killed all the women, children and the elderly from a nearby Turkish village who could not escape in time and that the Russians pillaged the whole village and seized all the valuables. I registered myself in the 153rd Regiment in Iresenson. A few days later, I was sent to a post at the front. There I took advantage of the first opportunity and I had escaped to the Turkish side. I believe it is my duty to express once more my gratitude to the Turkish officers and soldiers for the hospitality they extended to me."

Otto Fensher

Archive No : 1/2
Cabin No : 178
Drawer No : l
File No : 373
Section No : 1484
Index No : 10-7

DOCUMENT NO: 1998 (145)

Ministry of Defence
Department of Correspondence
Coded Messages Section

Coded Message from Ankara to the Ministry of Defence

The death of an Armenian as a result of a bomb explosion revealed that the above-mentioned had been manufacturing bombs in Develi township. Gunpowder and various weapons hidden in the Armenian cemeteries were uncovered as a result of the search conducted by local authorities. The Office of the Commander of the 15th Division was notified that the search is going on and that the results will be submitted. Any additional information to be obtained will be submitted. February 25, 1915

Acting Commander of the
5th Army Corps
Halil Recai

To the Public Order Section
Copy delivered to Headquarters February 25, 1915

Archive No : 1-131
Cabin No : 219
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2287
Section No : 12
Index No : 8

DOCUMENT NO: 1999 (146)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command
General Staff

February 25, 1915

Section 1
No: 8682

To the Independent Department of Public Order

Certain Armenian brigands have appeared in Bitlis and some Armenian army deserters have begun to resort to banditry. Armenians attacked the soldiers and the gendarmerie in Halep (Aleppo) and Dortyol. Considerable quantities of explosives as well as groups of code keys in French, Russian and Armenian were found in the houses belonging to Armenians in the city of Kayseri. Although these incidents are not so important at present, they indicate that our enemies are preparing to launch a revolt inside the country. Therefore, the announcement and communication of the following articles were deemed necessary.

1. Armenian privates in mobile armies as well as mobile and stationary gendarmerie units will never be used in combat services and will never be employed in the offices of the headquarters and suites of the commanders.

2. Army and army corps commanders, acting commanders of army corps and divisions and commandants must and are authorized to swiftly put down in the most rigorous way any sort of opposition or armed aggression or resistance against government orders and to completely eradicate such aggression or resistance. Furthermore, the commanders are also authorized to declare martial law immediately in any place they deem necessary.

3. Although it is necessary to be careful and alert, the kind of oppression that would frighten the people should be avoided in places where there are no concrete signs of aggression. Hence, the view that the loyal and obedient subjects will not suffer any harm should be stressed and the people must not be incited to revolt as a result of desperation.

4. Since all problems of defence and public order concern the Armed Forces as a result of general mobilization, civil administrators shall apply to the commanders on such matters. Only the civil administrators of the Province of Istanbul shall apply to the General Headquarters on matters and measures related to public order.

5. The most competent authorities in matters related to public order are the army commanders in the Third and Fourth Armies as well as the Iraqi regions. The most competent authorities in such matters are the army corps commanders in the First and Second Army regions. These army corps commanders shall keep the Acting Commander-in-Chief and army commanders informed.

6. The Third and Fourth Army Commanders shall immediately inform the Acting Commander-in-Chief of the measures being taken and planned in the likelihood of incidents.

This order:

is communicated to the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Iraq and its Vicinity Army Commands, the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Filth Army Corps Commands, the Ministries of Defence and or Interior, Directorate of Courts, Independent Public Order Section, Department of the Army, General Command of Gendarmerie.

Public Order
98 1

February 27, 1915

Acting Commander-in-Chief

Archive No : 1-31
Cabin No : 219
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2287
Section No : I2
Index No : 9

DOCUMENT NO: 2000 (147)

Ministry of Interior
Directorate General of Security

Copy of the Coded Telegram from the Provincial Authority of Adana dated February 26, 1915

Three Armenians known as "School Teacher" Abraham from Adana and Artin and Bedros from Dortyol escaped to an enemy warship in the Dortyol region on February 12, 1915. For this reason, I went to Erzi. I took the necessary measures and gave my orders. One of our patrol units apprehended a man named Agop from Dortyol in the marshes in the same region on February 24, 1915. The people whose names were given by the said person were rounded up. According to the said person's statement, the few traitors who cannot live in peace in Turkey are armed and ready to act, and they could have killed many Turks. According to this statement, they were assigned the mission of informing the enemy warship of the strength and number of the army units in the region and whether or not they had cannons. Those who were actually involved in this conspiracy and also the suspects were arrested and the necessary measures were taken. According to an official letter from the township authority, on February 25, 1915, one of our patrol units found a mirror which had red glass in the middle which was from a signal lamp in the marshes near the Piyas point of Azirli Village on the railway 35 kilometres section to Adana. For this reason, 1 telephoned Avni Bey, the Commander of the Gendarmerie Regiment in Osmaniye and I also communicated with the commandant in Erzin. I told him that it was necessary to relocate all the Armenians in Dortyol to Osmaniye, Ceyhan and Adana so that no Armenians would remain in that region. I also submit, for your information, my written orders that those who were arrested in the town of Hacin for posting placards of the Hinchak Committee urging the people to revolt against the Government, be sent to the Central Township to be tried by the Martial Law Tribunal and that the necessary measures be taken there.

Archive No : 1/1
Cabin No : 101
Drawer No : 2
File No : 13
Section No : 63
Index No : 2

Ministry of Interior
Directorate General of Security
No: 168 Secret

To the Acting Supreme Commander of the Ottoman Army Secret

Enclosure: 1

Your Highness.
Enclosed please find a copy of the telegram from the Provincial Authority of Adana, which is dated February 26, 1915 and concerns the Armenians in Dortyol. Your highness has the authority to give orders in this regard.

February 27, 1915
Minister of the Interior
Signature (Talat)

28 Dated M-A-I

Serious measures should be
firmly taken regarding
those who were arrested

Section 1/28 Dated
Branch 2 15-12-C

M / Section 1/3502

To be communicated to the 4th Army Command

Archive No : 1/1
Cabin No : 101
Drawer No : 2
File No : 13
Section No : 63
Index No : 2-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2001 (148)

Army Command

February 27, 1915

"Coded" Message to the Acting Supreme Command in Sublime Porte

C/ February 26, 1915 and Code 53610

I . The first Armenian incident began near Mus with clashes with a gang of 50 bandits. Taking into account that this incident might not assume merely regional proportions, the Army recommended that further incidents could be prevented by receiving information prior to the incidents and that it was necessary to find out the magnitude of forces that the provincial authorities would need. The Army also recommended that in case incidents did occur, they should be completely crushed as soon as possible and in a just manner and that attention must be paid to prevent the spread of such incidents so that they would not turn into a crisis. The Army also assigned the Loc Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion under the command of the Provincial Authority of Van.

2. Subsequently, although some incidents took place in a few places in the Province of Bitlis, they were immediately crushed. The Army decided to strengthen the stationary gendarmerie forces as much as needed, to return the mobile gendarmeries in the sahara army to the provinces and to increase the number of personnel at the military offices and gave orders to this end.

Written/February 28, 1915
Signature (M.Baki)

"Coded" Message to the Governors of Erzurum, Trabzon, Sivas, Harput, Bitlis, Van, and Diyarbakir

l . Apart from Armenian uprisings in a few places in the Province of Bitlis which were crushed before they had spread and became a problem, the Acting Supreme Command noted that the Armenians attacked the soldiers and the gendarmeries in Halep and Dortyol, and that vast quantities of bombs as well as secret code keys in French, Russian and Armenian were found in Armenian houses in Kayseri township.

2. It is evident that the enemy governments are employing material and moral means to create unrest inside the country and planning to use the Armenians as well as some unfortunate Kurds as instruments in attaining their goals.

3. The interests of the country and the benefits of the Army fighting the outside enemies dictate the prevention of such incidents with common sense and in justice by receiving timely information before such incidents take place or the conclusive and prompt crushing of the incidents before they spread and turn into a problem. Serious attention shall be given to comply with articles 1,2, 3,4 and 5 of the coded message received from the Acting Supreme Command in this respect. 2 ...... 3 ...... 4 ...... 5 ...... To be written textually

4. This order, in the form of a coded message, has been relayed to the Covernors of Erzurum, Trabron, Sivas, Harput, Bitlis, Van and Diyarbakir; the 9th. 10th and 11th Army Corps commands and Acting Commands; the commands of the 2 nd Army and the Reserve Cavalry Division, the 5th Mobilized Forces Command; Fortifications Command; and the Communications Inspectorate.

Signature (Vasif)

Since we did not have a code, this order was not relayed to the Mobilized Forces. Instead, an official letter was written.

Signature (Not clear)

The writer of the tells:
February 29, 1915 Signature (Not clear)

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : 69
Index No : 2-23

DOCUMENT NO: 2002 (149)


Section: l
Division: 2
April 14, 1915

To the Acting Supreme Command

Coded Telegram

l . The detailed report dated March 27, 1915 which was received from the Acting Command of the l0th Army Corps indicated that an insurgent organization was secretly set up in the Province of Sivas by the Armenian Tashnak Society with the principal aim of creating unrest behind the battle lines of the Ottoman Army so a.; to facilitate the enemy operations and that the members of this organization were armed with various weapons.

2. Necessary orders were issued to the provincial authority and the army corps acting command to take the measures that would never give any chance of action at a critical time in the future ro those who have yet dared to create a serious and general revolt as well as to conclusively crush all incidents before they had spread.

Signature (Yusuf Cemaleddin)
Signature (Izzet Sarni)
Signature (Mahmut Kamil)

Written April 15, 1915

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : A-69
Index No : 3

DOCUMENT NO: 2003 (150)

Coded Message from Cevdet Bey, Governor of Van, dated April 22/23, 1915

Tel. No: 3

Today, there were intensive clashes. I went to the castle to personally deal with the rebels in the inner city, estimated to be around 700 combatants carefully selected among the townspeople and villagers by the Committee to attack the castle, as I had previously reported. Nokalis Efendi from Venezuela was also there at that time and he worked with me. He is going to stay here for a few days to deal with the rebels. Despite all efforts, it was not possible to overpower the rebels and drive them away from the town's quarters they had occupied. These rebels are taking very safe shelter inside the houses and they are very active, having burned down a considerable part of the town. However, support forces from other regions have begun arrive. We are attacking more ferociously.

Section: 1
23 Dated
Branch: 2

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : A-69
Index No : 3-41

DOCUMENT NO: 2004 (151)

May 22, 1915

To the Acting Supreme Cummand

April 8, 1915
Coded Message

The allegations of the Armenian Patriarchate were investigated: It was established that Bisare Ceto went to Azerbaijan as a volunteer and was killed in action three months ago. It was also established that Mehmet Emin was ambushed by the Armenians while he was on his way to Azerbaijan and that he is currently at home. No village majordomos were killed by the gendarmerie in the Province of Van. There is no village called Zifo where a child was allegedly killed. The allegations of the murder of three leading Armenians from Tercan as well as the maltreatment and oppression of the Armenians in Bayburt with the pretext of collecting firearms and demands for money are all lies fabricated by the Armenians from three or four villages from the Pülür District of Bayburt who became angered after 52 weapons were confiscated during searches jointly conducted by the District Governor and the Battalion of volunteers commanded by Bekir Sitki Bey. Armenians from Porek Village in Susehri attacked the unarmed volunteers passing nearby on February 12, 1915, opened fire on the security forces sent by the Provincial Authority, and wounded two soldiers. Naturally, this detachment retaliated, and seized 139 rifles and apprehend 95 army deserters and 25 suspects during the searches conducted in this village. Therefore, it was established that these allegations consist of fabrications which aim to incriminate the government and the intelligence gathered by the Patriarch was found to be untrue.

At present, the Armenians are revolting throughout the Province of Van and in some parts of the Province of Sivas. Armenians in other provinces will certainly join the rebels at the appropriate time. Various telegrams sent by other provinces and myself regarding the daily incidents indicate that the Armenians constitute the aggressive and hostile side and disprove the claims of legitimate self-defence against maltreatment and oppression by the gendarmerie forces.

Investigations made by the Provincial Authority of Sivas revealed that the attacks were previously planned and prepared by the Tashnak and other committees, that the necessary weapons were stocked, that rebellious groups were set up in various townships and that they would create unrest behind the front lines of the army. The escape of all Armenians in the Ottoman Army either to the enemy side or to their homelands as well as the latest incidents in the Province of Van prove the accuracy and reliability of the said investigations. Therefore, the escape of the Armenian conscripts from the army in wartime when they should have protected the fatherland, the rebellion in the Province of Van and the indications of unrest in the Province of Sivas have proved that the Armenians have betrayed the Government and that they are collaborating with the enemy. Since it has become compulsory to subdue these rebellious traitors conclusively and swiftly, the provincial authority and the acting commands of the army corps were informed of the necessity of making use of all people who can fight by drafting all those between the ages of 46 and 50 as well as taking other security measures. It was decided to mercilessly exterminate all armed traitors who are revolting against the Government without offending loyal citizens, the poor and the helpless. If you deem it appropriate, I kindly request that you inform the Holy Armenian Patriarch of the above-mentioned points and urge him to lead the Armenian Nation on the path of loyalty in compliance with his religious duty of enlightening the misguided, instead of making exaggerated complaints based on fabrications of treacherous informers.

Signature (Izzet Sami) Signature (Mahmut Kamil)

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 161
Drawer No : 1
File No : 2820
Section No : A-(69)
Index No : 3-33

DOCUMENT NO: 2005 (152)

Telegram No: 1000

Decoded Message from Kazim Bey, Commander of the Van Mobile Gendarmerie Division, Received on April 29, 1915

Very important and urgent

This coded message includes the following remarks of the Central Telegram Director of' Erzurum:

To First Aide-de-camp Bedi Bey:

This coded message dated 24 has just been received from Sivas. The fifth and sixth articles were not in written form. The cause of the delay should be investigated. "The fifth and sixth articles do not exist in the original copy but the meaning is not irrelevant."

Signature (Not clear)

1. Yesterday, a strong enemy division advanced to the vicinity of Kotor Pass. I believe the enemy, informed of the Armenian uprising, intends to occupy Kotor and dispatch strong bands from there to the interior.

2. It is certain that all the Armenian bands in Iran, taking advantage of the Armenian uprising in the interior, will attempt to infiltrate into the Province of Van.

3. A telegram just received from the Mobilized Forces Command orders the dispatch of adequate forces under the command of the Governor of Van to crush the uprising. Actually, I had already sent massive forces to Van before receiving this order, including the cannons here and at the Kotor Detachment as well as a battalion of soldiers. At present there is a 1000-man force stationed in the vicinity of Deyir and the Kotor Detachment consists of 700 men. In line with your instructions these forces, with the assistance of the regular troops, will try to prevent the bands in Iran from infiltrating into the country.

4. It has been reported that some tribes united and took joint action against the Nasturis revolting in Colemerik Township. Even though some tribes are being sent to Sitak Township, no reliable information has been received from there since April 15. In general, it is possible to subdue the rebels in the districts of Hivasor, Timar and Ebecik. Clashes in Van still continue. The forces I sent from here have been taking part in the clashes in Van since yesterday.

5. Mobilized Forces concludes that the Mobile Gendarmerie Division, although already weakened as a result of the delay in Rumya and the continuing rebellion, would fight without any assistance from the Mobilized Forces. Last night, instructions were asked for to expedite the action.

6. Today, a clash took place with an enemy cavalry unit advancing from Kohnesehir in the direction of Deyir and the enemy cavalry retreated.

7. The telegram was sent from Deyir to "Semdniyan" and from there it was to be delivered to the Derbent Telegram Center of the Province of Mousul, to be sent to your command from the said place.

April 24, 1915
Section: 1/17 Dated 30
Branch: 1

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : A-69
Index No : 3-71

Holdwater: Point 4 refers to the Nestorians, who were revolting. These would be the Assyrians, who also have jumped aboard the genocide bandwagon, and are playing innocent.

DOCUMENT NO: 2006 (153)

May 22, 1915

Section 2: 10689
Drafter: Signature (Ali Kernal)
Writer: Signature (Ahdurrahrnan)
May 19, 1915

To the Directorate General of Security
Enclosed please find clippings of certain articles that appeared in the April 2 and 16, 1915 editions of the "Asbarez" newspaper being published in the United States of America as well as their translations.

28/4 Original
28 Quote
28 Quote

"Coded Telegram" to the Third Army

Code: M/3166
It has been reported that the Armenian gang leader Antranic, with his 1,200 volunteers, departed from Salmas and joined the Azerbaijan Russian Commander Chernoroyof's division, and that later the above mentioned band marched off in the direction of Baskale, and that the Tashnaks in Boston, the United States, raised 47,000 rubles to assist the volunteers, and that this amount has been sent to the Caucasian Society of Aid for the Armenians.

The decoder of the message
Signature (Suleyman)
May 21, 1915
1. 28/10
Armenian Gang Leader (Antranic)

Archive No : I/2
Cabin No : 108
Drawer No : 4
File No : 318
Section No : 1287
Index No : 1-26

DOCUMENT NO: 2007 (154)

Minutes of the Interrogation

An unidentified army deserter was apprehended today at around 8 o'clock by Gendarmerie soldier Mehmet Nuri from Maden, while hiding underneath the "Kantaralar" bridge on the Hamervan watercourse and taken to the Rumkapi Police Station. When asked to identify himself, the suspect said that he was Hagop, son of Karabet, that he was 38 years-old and from the Armenian community in Fatihpasa Quarters, that he worked as a metal caster, and that he was an army deserter. Since he used to work as a metal caster, he was told of the not completed bombs recently seized by government forces in the Armenian houses and asked if he knew who had manufactured those bombs. He was also asked about the number of bombs manufactured, the whereabouts of the remaining bombs and whether he had made them. In his statement before all those undersigned, he said that he manufactured twenty bombs made of bronze upon an order placed by Karabet, a dealer in cauldrons at the Sipahi Bazaar who 15 or 20 years ago had been a tinsmith. He said that he had delivered the bombs to cauldron-maker Hagop in Seymut Quarters and added that even though there were some Armenian committees there, he could neither remember nor identify them. He noted that the aforementioned Hagop had gone to America a few years ago and that Ahpar ("friend" in Armenian) Hagop, one of Hagop's cousins, a cauldron-maker at the Kazancilar Bazaar, was currently residing at the above-mentioned house. He stated that he believed the said bombs might still be at the above-mentioned house. The suspect also said that he used the wooden mold made by Ohan, a merchant at the Yilancilar Bazaar, to manufacture the bombs and that the son of Hagop the tinsmith also from Kazancilar Bazaar came to him with a bomb one day. The suspect stated that he had drilled a "hole" for the fuse and that Hagop's son had inserted it. He said that he did not know the name of Hagop's son and that he had no other information to give. Then, the minutes of the interrogation were written and read to the suspect. The document was certified by the undersigned after the suspect had confirmed and signed it.

May 27, 1915

(Not clear)

(Mehmet Nuri
from Maden)


Military Police

Police Officer


Assistant Police
Commissioner of Rumkapi

Archive No : 5 920
Cabin No : 27
Drawer No : 5
File No : 4608
Section No : 6
Index No : 1-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2008 (155)

Third Army
To the Command of the Second
Independent Cavalry Division
Number: 546
Very Important

June 11, 1915

'To the Pasinler Group Command in Bedrovans

The following is a summary of replies given by Abraham from Bitlis, son of Iskender, during verbal interrogation. The aforementioned who was travelling via upper Haydar Komu, later claimed to be a Syriac.

The above-mentioned, who also claimed to be a surgeon, was a volunteer at the Esekilyas Detachment of the Kobanski Cossack Regiment. Half of the said regiment was stationed in Baskoy and Karakurt and the other half in Esekilyas. The Omanski Cossack Regiment entered Iran about 21 days ago and it is present in Tebriz and Selmas.

A few days ago the Hoporski and Mezofski Regiments as well as some other detachments departed for Germany at different times. A commander named Gargarov was appointed to replace General Berkman who was sent to Germany 25 days ago. However, the new commander has not yet come from Tiflis. General Baratov, who is stationed in Karakurt, still serves as the Acting Commander.

The Russians keep 6 drojins formed of Armenians particularly in the south of the Aras river (Each drojin consists of 12 lieutenants and 1,000-1.200 soldiers). Presently, one drojin commanded by Antranik is in Van. Four of them are stationed between Van and the Tulak region. One drojin includes Armenians from Adapazari, Tekirdag and Tercan. Another 1,200 strong drojin is commanded by gang leader Osharov and is stationed in Cilifani, in the Tahir region. The Katerinadraski Cossack Regiment and some infantry detachments are stationed in Cerason. Furthermore, there are 1,400 soldiers in Esekilyas.

The Russians want to advance to Hinis with the objective of completely occupying Van and its vicinity in particular. It is said that unless Warsaw is silenced, they will not be able to go into action in this region. If Warsaw is silenced, 25,000 soldiers will he sent to Caucasia and 75,000 to European-Russia from Japan in addition to the 120 artillery weapons already received from there.

Apart from the forces dispatched to Germany, the total number of troops in the Russian army in all of Caucasia starting from the Iranian border at Culfa and onwards is 19.000 while in the Oltu region it is 12.000 and the remainder all in other regions including Kars and Sarikamis. About 35,000 troops of the said force of 69,000 have been redrafted. They have adequate ammunition. The Armenian battalions have manliher rifles and ammunition for these rifles is not more than 120,000-125,000 rounds. However, there is adequate ammunition for the Russian rifles. The ammunition is being shipped to Russia from France via Sweden and Norway. The Russians have banned people, particularly merchants from traveling to Kagizman from the vicinity of Tiflis.

He also said that the Armenians will wear fezzes and play Turkish marches during the battles in order to confuse our troops.

Aspirations of Armenians

According to the Czar's promise to Governor Varanz of Vayishko of Caucasia, the provinces of Van, Bitlis, Trabzon, Erzincan, Elazig and Bingol are promised to the Armenians if they gather together 60,000 troops and enter the war. For this reason, both the Armenian Patriarchate and Katfekos are reportedly assembling the Armenians in Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and America. Although it is quite impossible to gather together that many troops, Armenians living in Caucasia are asked to volunteer and they number around 15,000 men in the European-Russian army.

Three months ago, two officers from the War Academy in Bulgaria named Karakin and Vartan came to assist the Armenians. Only 125 of the 1,400 Armenians commanded by Dron reportedly survived the Kop encounter. Dron himself was wounded. Abraham Gulyan Daryan directs the fate of all the Armenians from Tiflis. Vartekis, the Armenian deputy from Erzurum, is in Van. Bastirmaciyan went from Erivan to France. Armenian immigrants from Pasinler have been resettled in the vicinity of Erivan.

The leading committee members maintaining communications between Istanbul and Tiflis are Hachak Kirkor Arziviyan, a school teacher in Kumkale: Culluyan, one of the reporters of the Azardamart newspaper at the Asayan School in Beyoglu: and Arsen Kedor, instructor at the Patriarchal School.

Canpuladof from Caucasia and Bastirmaciyan's relatives carry out the communications in Erzurum. The prisoner said that he did not know the names of traitors in Erzincan. Former deputy Murat Boyaciyan directs the communications of the Hunchaks in Sivas. Besides, two brothers from the Armaganyan family, whose given names he could not recall pass on information to their friends in Caucasia. Through the mediation of the oldest Armenian priest in Sivas, a man called Agop reportedly manufactures bombs and the bombs are shipped by the priest's wife. This is said to be still going on. Someone named John Kulyan provides information to the Hunchaks in Istanbul. Information is relayed by the afore-mentioned persons to a certain Hamparsom of Tekirdag, a merchant in Edirne: and to Agop Elveciyan from Adapazari. These persons inform their contacts in Bulgaria, Romania and at times Italy. Tiflis receives information from these sources, including diplomatic personnel such as consuls. The prisoner reportedly understand the code-decode key of the Tashnaks.

He also said that the Tashnaks have 2.5 million British pounds in Sofia and the Hunchaks have over 1 million rubles in Bucharest to be spent for various purposes. He noted that rich Armenians also help raise funds and that so far 8 million rubles have been spent.

Reportedly, about a month ago, an Armenian Karabet Kahyayan from Erzurum, who is about 24 years of age and Ararn Zambakciyan from Romania, each having 1,000 liras, were sent from Tiflis via Romania and Bulgaria to Istanbul in order to examine the situation in the Sublime Porte and inform the Central Committee in Caucasia. They will arrive in Istanbul posing as merchants and after completing their work they will go to Konya by railway and return via the same route. These aforementioned people hold Romanian passports.

The prisoner also confessed that there was a secret wireless telegraph station in the province of Sivas but he said he did not know the location of this station. Today, however, he added that there are such stations in Esekilyas, Karakurt and Sarikamis.

The station in Esekilyas is located four kilometers northwest of Tahir on the Tahir-lgirbigir road.

It is possible that Abraham. who claimed to be a refugee and gave substantial information useful for the army, might reveal more important information if further questioned. And, he will prove to be very useful to us if he is in reality a committee member for he has very detailed information regarding the plans and positions of the Armenians in particular.

June 13, 1915
He is to be questioned further

Division Commander
Lieutenant Colonel
Signature (Mursel)

To the Office of the Chief of Staff

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : A-69
Index No : 4-7, 4-8

Holdwater: The Dron" from above was probably Drastamat "Dro" Kanayan. If "Only 125 of the 1,400 Armenians commanded by Dron reportedly survived the Kop encounter," then that is one battle Dro lost. Dro gets credit in some Armenian circles for never having lost a battle; Leon Surmelian was a believer in this myth.

 DOCUMENT NO: 2009 (156)

Coded Message of June 29. 1915
Received from Tahsin Bey, Governor
of Erzurum

Cable No.

The District Authority of Bayburt has reported that the Tevfik Efendi Detachment clashed with an 11-man gang of armed Armenians near Kopuz Creek, that two bandits were killed, a village guard Mehmet Cavus lost his life during the clashes, and that the detachment is in hot pursuit of the gang.

Section: I/Dated 30
Division: l

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No : 4

DOCUMENT NO: 2010 (157)

Hour: 7 PM
Minute: 10
Origin: Headquarters
No delivered: 125

Very Urgent. War Cable.
Not to be delayed even for a minute.

To the Third Army Command in Tortum

1. As I have already informed you today by cable, three representatives who came to us last night delivered the following letter in Armenian from the rebels. "To the District Authority of Sarki Karahisar and Special Forces Command, We have received the letter sent by Mercanyan Nisan and Baron Vartinyan Antranik. We would like to thank you for promising that no harm will be done if we surrender voluntarily. All the people are ready lo surrender. Some of the armed militants also share this view of the people. Although some do not wish to surrender, we will try to persuade them. Hopefully, we will manage to persuade everyone by tomorrow or the day after and act in accordance with the Government's offer. Meanwhile, we must point out that those who are not convinced yet are not opposing the Government but merely fear for their lives. For this reason, we kindly ask for more assurance, although there is no need for further discussions on this matter. Being convinced that a declaration of amnesty in the first place would be an unforgettable and great favor for the country as well as this unlucky nation, we kindly request your assistance in solving this problem.
July 2, 1915
K Self Defence Council"

2. Upon receiving this letter of the rebels, and considering that only parts of 682's and 497's will be able to arrive until tomorrow or the day after, we have written the following letter:

"To all Armenians in the citadel,

We have received your letter dated July 2, 1915. We have already informed you that all armed as well as unarmed people must surrender in order to prevent further incidents and to bring to a satisfactory end the Karahisar incident that occurred against the wishes of the government and angered the people. Since we think that the annihilation of thousands of women, children and innocent people is incompatible with governmental justice and humanity, we have given guarantees and assurances regarding the lives of the peaceful and the innocent who are in the majority. We have also informed you, that ending the unrest and surrendering as won as possible would be in your and all the Armenians' benefit. With the hope that you appreciate the situation and the interest on the Armenian nation, you will be allowed until 5 o'clock tomorrow to decide. Naturally, the Sultan's amnesty will not be possible in a couple of days. The decision of an amnesty will be made following the restoration of law and order. With the aim of protecting a nation of the Ottoman Empire, we declare once again that the government will exert every possible effort to immediately accommodate you all and to compensate your losses as much as possible following the surrender of arms as had been previously specified.
July 2, l915

Acting Governor of Karahirar

Commander of the Special Forces Lieutenant General

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No : 3-61

DOCUMENT NO: 2011 (158)


Coded Message dated July 20, 1915 from Lazistan
Commander Avni Pasha

No: 114

1. It has been reported that over 300 Armenians have assembled in the rocky area known as Kale near the Kizileyin Village of the Ulubey Township of Ordu and that they intend to launch raids.

2. Giresun Post Command reported that the gendarmeries in the vicinity have begun engaging in clashes and that 8 rebels were killed and 12 captured alive. It is also reported that mobile gendarmerie units were sent as support forces due to the harsh terrain and lack of ammunition and that the results would be relayed.

Section: 1/21 Dated
Branch: 1

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No : 4-7

DOCUMENT NO: 2012 (159)

Coded Message July 22, 1915

To the Acting Supreme Command

l . Since the last part of the Armenian rebellion in Karahisar has been completely suppressed, only the Second Girerun Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion remained in the town to maintain law and order and three battalions of special forces consisting of trainees were sent to Erzurum.

2. Upon reports that over 300 Armenians had assembled in the rocky area known as Kale near Kizileyin Village in Ordu's Ulubey Township with the aim of launching raids, the gendarmerie forces in the vicinity went to this assembly place and began engaging in clashes. As a result, eight rebels were killed and the support forces are pursuing the remaining bandits.

3. The Acting Command of the 11th Army Corps reported that the Christians in Midyar are rebelling and that they have already started clashing with the Gendarmerie forces.

4. Reliable sources reported that Bedirhani Abdurrcuak who is leading certain Kurds and Armenians, is instigating the loyal Kurds in the vicinity of Sitak, Sirnak and Pervari against the Government and that he has sent a message to the Cizre tribes asking them to join his forces. Upon this, the Provincial Authority of Diyarbakir reported that the Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion in Midyat was sent to Sirnak to pursue Abdurrezrak. Meanwhile, there was a request for about 4,000 rifles to arm the loyal population and 2,000 high-power Mauser rifles left by the 36th Division in Diyarhakir were ordered hy the Provincial Authority.

July 23, 1915

Mahmut Kamil

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No : 3-84, 3-85

Holdwater: Note certain Kurdish tribes also served as trouble for the Ottomans, during this dangerous war.

DOCUMENT NO: 2013 (160)


Date: 3 Dated
Hour: 12
Minute: 50
Origin: Elazig
No: 46034
Words: 50
No: 2615

To the Third Army Command

Diyarbakir Stationary Gendarmerie Regiment and Midyat Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion commands reported that with the suppression of the rebels in Midyat, the town had been cleared of bandits, that about 500 rebels who took shelter in the 120-house Ziyor Village had been under siege since July 17/18, that three gendarmes and 22 tribesmen were killed and three gendarmes and 62 tribesmen were wounded during the clashes that still continue, and that the rebels would be driven away from their shelters after the artillery arrives.

August 4, 1915

Acting Army Corps Commander
Suleyman Faik

Section: 1 Dated 3
To the Supreme Command

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : ?31
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No ; 4-11

DOCUMENT NO: 2014 (161)


Decoded Message of August 2/3, 1915 from Muammer
Bey, Governor uf Sivas

Clashes in the Village of Dendil are still continuing. Six soldiers were wounded during the clashes yesterday and two soldiers who had previously been wounded have died. Six rebels who left their caves during the night in an attempt to escape and to get water were killed. It is impossible to enter the caves, for the rebels frequently use bombs. However, the rebels are greatly suffering from thirst because our units are in control of the springs near the caves. The rebels asked for a deadline until one o'clock tomorrow to surrender. The result shall be presented to you.

Section: 1/2 Dated
Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No : 4-26

DOCUMENT NO: 2015 (162)

No: 3170

Decoded Message Dated August 4, 1915 from Pertev Bey. Acting Commander of the 10th Army Corps in Sivas

Arrival 4/5

Upon reports received late last night to the effect that 10 armed Armenians took shelter in a house in Niksar, it was revealed that the house was surrounded by the gendarmerie and drill-ground detachment. In addition, a girl who was amongst the rebels was wounded by a shot fired by the rebels while surrendering. Later on, a fire broke out in the house and five houses were burned. Meanwhile, seven rebels who attempted to escape were killed and three rebels burned to death. Presented for your information based on local reports.

Section: l / 4 Dated
Branch: 1

Archive No : 4-3671
' Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2835
Section No : 127
Index No : 4-31

DOCUMENT NO: 2016 (163)

Third Army Communications Inspectorate
Staff Section

from Erzurum
September 2, 1915

Section: 3
No: : 1966-22100

To the Third Army Command

The Bayburt Post reported that Assistant Veterinarian Kirkor Efendi, who was appointed and sent to the Bayburt Veterinary Post on May 24, 1915 while he was the veterinarian of the 89th Regiment, deserted his unit following clashes with Armenian gangs, has not returned for 24 hours, and has joined the said Armenian gangs. Presented for the necessary procedures.

Communications Inspector
(Signature) Fuat Ziya

Section: 3
Dated 2
No: 5104

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : A-69
Index No : 1-34

DOCUMENT NO: 2017 (164)

Ottoman Government
Ministry of Postal, Telegraphic and Telephone Services

Branch: 115266
Date: September 29, 1915
Hour: 6.00 PM.
Minute: 45
Origin: Urfa
No: 7.923
Words: 150

Hour: 5.00 P.M.
Official Copy

Very Important and Urgent

To the Ministry of the Interior

A supplement to the previous telegram. Shots were fired in the morning from a few houses and now it is evening and there are fierce clashes occurring throughout the Armenian quarters. Gendarmerie forces are unable to advance because of the strategic location of the said quarters and the strongly built houses in which they are taking shelter. The number of wounded has risen to six and one of the wounded has died. It has just been reported that they attacked all the Moslem houses in their quarters and murdered them. According to the clothing and Mauser rifles belonging to a few apprehended bandits, it is evident that the Armenian gangs entered the town from time to time. They use the worst profanity every time they shoot. Even if the gendarmerie forces are doubled, the result won't be successful. Therefore, we kindly ask you to give the necessary orders for the urgent dispatch of a military force along with artillery weapons, if possible.

September 29, 1915
Section: l / Dated 30

On behalf of the District Governor
of Urfa, the Accountant
Signature (Nazrni)
Branch: 2/17-7 A

Archive No : 1-131
Cabin No : 219
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2287
Section No : 11
Index No : 4-13

DOCUMENT NO: 2018 (165)

Gendarmerie General Command
Section: l
Branch: 2
No (Special): h827
No (General):

September 26, 1915


To the Ministry of Defence

Content: Regarding the appointments
of Lieutenant Colonel
Muhittin, Major Galip and
Captain Naki to the commission
to be sent to the Eastern
Anatolian Provinces

Commissions will be set up in certain regions to conduct the necessary investigations on civil servants and gendarmes who abused their offices and acted in breach of the law during the relocation of Armenians in Anatolia and in the eastern provinces as well as to court martial the suspects. Memorandum No. 88 dated September 25, 1915 states that lzmir Gendarmerie Sector Inspector Lieutenant Colonel Muhittin, First Section Deputy Director of the Gendarmerie General Command Major Galip and the Fourth Branch Chief of the same section wcre appointed to the aforementioned commissions and orders these personnel to apply to the Ministry of Interior on Monday, September 27, 1915 at 3.00 p.m. Submitted for your information.

Gendarmerie General commander
Signature (Rasim)

Section: 2
September 27, 1915

Law and Order Section

To the Personnel Department:
To be returned after examination. September 30, 1915

Directorate of the Law and Order
Section of the Ministry of Defence

Archive No : 1-131
Cabin No : 219
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2287
Section No : 13
Index No : 3

DOCUMENT NO: 2019 (166)

(Reservists ...
51st Regiment, 2nd Tortum Battalion)

Some of the Atrocities Committed by the Armenians against the Islamic Population Heretofore

l. A gang of 60-70 Armenians from Narman's Ekrek and Yegenhas villages and Tortum's Sepek Village led by Kirkor, son of Kulik from Bitlis, was quite active in the Narman and Tortum regions between 1891 and 1894. It was proven in court that this gang killed many people in Narman and also barbarously murdered Sakip Aga from Hicviulya Village by first cutting open his abdomen and then forcing him to tear out his own lungs and liver.

2. They also killed an 18 year-old youth named Ahmet from the same village by burning him alive. It was established in court that the burnt body of this youngster was found in the house of a priest named Vartan. The perpetrators of this crime, two Armenians named Aliksan and Vartan from Sepek later escaped from the Erzurum Jail.

3. The members of this gang wore Moslem garb most of the time. They used to kill the persons that they found alone and even attacked and raped the children in the fields.

4. The members of this gang killed and raped many people at Sivri Creek. They were armed in Russia and occasionally attacked the Moslems.

5. Although this Armenian gang had been dispersed to a certain extent following 1894, armed volunteers lived in Armenian villages until the declaration of the constitutional government. These volunteers maintained their contacts in Russia with frequent visits made through the Erzurum Plains and Ekrek, Yegenhas and Sipak villages. The people of Sipak helped the volunteers cross the borders. An examination of the court files in Erzurum reveals that all kinds of atrocities committed by only the Armenians.

6. Armenian atrocities were also witnessed during the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian War. Apart from guiding the Russian units, they attempted to hang Resit Aga from Narman and Ali Aga from Su!eymanli Village. The Russian commanders prevented these murders upon the requests of the public.

7. Although the Armenians said that they would answer the call to arms, so far not a single Armenian of conscription age has showed up for military service. During the official exams, these people were shown as residents of Russia and their priests confirmed such statements by sealing and signing the papers. These documents are preserved at the Conscription Office.

8. Since the beginning of the general mobilization, the Armenians have never met their military obligations. On the contrary, they offended the Moslem population by stating in various places that the Russians would be victorious and that this victory would benefit the Armenians in the future.

9. Not a single Armenian from Narman's Ekrek and Yegenhas villages has applied for military service during the current mobilization.

10. The Armenians started to spy for the Russian army as soon as mobilization began. They assisted the Russian army during the latest offensive by repeatedly cutting down the telegram lines near Sipak.

I l. Armenians from Ekrek and Yegenhas villages guided the Russian troops during the enemy occupation. They were among the enemy troops wearing Russian uniforms and carrying Russian weapons. Apart from attacking the Moslems, the Armenians, being encouraged by the Russians, humiliated the town and village notables and their families and acted much more cruelly and barbarously than the Russians. They are responsible for many killings, thefts, pillages, attacks and rapes.

12. Nowadays, they are still engaged in activities in the front lines or forward pox.; of the enemy forces. They are killing the men and children and abducting and raping the women in the occupied quarters.

13. Since the Armenians live in only six houses in Narman and Torrum, the mentioned atrocities in this area can be said to be minimal when compared with their incredible and indescribable cruelties in other regions such as Pasinler, Eleskirt, Bayerit, Mus, Van and their vicinities. The Armenians had caused constant unrest in the Van, Bitlis and Bayezit regions since 1889 until the declaration of the constitutional government. The cruelties and atrocities committed by the Armenians constitute volumes of notes and documents in the files of military units.

September 3, 1915

Head of the Tortum Conscription Office
Signature (Ismail Ishak)

Archive No : 6-3497
Cabin No : 310
Drawer No : 1
File No : 5771 Section No : 1
Index No : 2

Holdwater: Good stuff above, demonstrating the loyalty of the Armenians.

DOCUMENT NO: 2020 (167)

Ottoman Government
Ministry of Postal, Telegraph and Telephone Services

Supreme Command
Date: October 5, 1915 Istanbul
Hour: 10.00 p.m.
Signature of the official: Signature (Hakki)
Origin: Urfa
No: 8137
Words: 150
Hour: 3.00 p.m.

At 7: 30 on Wednesday evening, September 29, Armenians fired around 18 or 19 shots in an interval of two or three minutes without any apparent reason. An immediate investigation revealed that the patrol units were not responsible for the shooting. Another investigation conducted in the morning established that two Armenians named Seku and Gugu and their friends fired the shots in Bicakci Square. A detachment of one officer, 12 gendarmes and three policemen was sent to apprehend the suspects. However, the detachment reported that the Armenians put up armed resistance, killing one gendarme and wounding four others. After an investigation of the scene of the incidents, it was evident that the Armenians were not shooting only from one area but from all over their quarters. The main street ending in their quarters as well as the other districts in the city were held and the fighting began. Following some skirmishes it became apparent that the Armenians had been prepared for resistance and were ready to fight against the gendarmerie forces. Therefore, the District Authority applied to the Fourth Army Command, requesting two artillery weapons and a battalion of soldiers. The requested weapons and soldiers arrived and they were positioned. Acting Commander of the Fourth Army Fahri Pasha arrived in Urfa today to personally direct the operations to suppress the rebellion. So far casualties include two dead and eight wounded from the gendarmerie and around thirty dead or injured citizens. Presented for your information. Dated 5.

Acting Commander

Copy delivered to section 1. Dated 5.
To the Second Section:
The District Governor of Urfa, mentioning the situation hereby described in this telegram, applied to the Headquarters requesting troops and artillery weapons. A written response given urged reference to the Fourth Army Command, also recommending the Fourth Army Command to take rapid action. Cemal Pasha dispatched an infantry battalion, a cavalry company and two sahara guns to Urfa. This detachment has been in Urfa since October 3, 1915 and it has been taking part in operations ever since. This is the latest telegram received. So far, no information has been received regarding the incident and the suppression of the rebellion. Enclosed please find previous telegrams received on this matter, copies of which are in the First Section.

6.10 By the order of the Operations Section

Archive No : 1-131
Cabin No : 219
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2287
Section No : 11
Index No : 4-17. 4-18

DOCUMENT NO: 2021 (168)

Erzurum Correspondence Office
Special: 1373

To the Supreme Command of the Third Ottoman Army

Dear General, On the 22nd day of this month, the Commission for Abandoned Properties opened a shop belonging to Alfons, son of Haci Aret from the Armenian people, in the Nazik shopping center in the Town of Erzurum. During a search and digging, 50 hand-grenades were found in the basement of the shop. The Police Directorate seized these grenades and delivered them to the office concerned. Presented for your information.

Commanding General/November 11, 1915

Governor of Erzurum
Signature (Tahsin)

Section: 3
7938/ 1-9
Division: I

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 231
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2820
Section No : A-69
Index No : 1-42

DOCUMENT NO: 2022 (169)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command
No : 108

From the Third Army to the Acting Supreme Command: Coded Message without a Number

On March 20, 1916 ... and information was given on March 11, 1916 regarding the atrocities committed by the Armenians in Erzurum. People escaping from the villages occupied by the enemy report that the enemy and particularly the Armenians were acting most ruthlessly and barbarously, that they were kidnapping the children, youngsters and the girls and taking them to unknown places, that they were pillaging everything and even committing mass murders, and that molestations and rapes were incredibly frequent. Information being received from various sources also confirms such reports.
March 21, 1916

Commander of the Third Army

Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : l81
Drawer No : 4
File No : 528
Section No : 2063
Index No : 1

DOCUMENT NO: 2023 (170)

Copy of the Coded Telegram from Ankara to the Ministry of Defence The coded telegram of April 3, 1916 from the Conscription Section of the 15th Division included a report from the Akdagmadeni Conscription Office to the effect that there were around 300 to 500 armed and unarmed Armenian bandits, some of whom wore military uniforms, assembled at the Devekayasi Point of Kizilcaova, at two hours of riding distance from the Cat Station in the Akdagmadeni region and that bodies of three brutally murdered Moslems had been found. The telegram also stated that Yozgat was ordered to provide further information and that a strong detachment would be dispatched to punish the bandits as soon as the necessary details were received. Meanwhile, conscription sections of the 13th and 14th Divisions have been informed of the situation, of the need to be vigilant and cautious, and of the possibility of taking measures if necessary and the 15th Division has been instructed to continuously convey information regarding this matter.
April 3, 1916

Chief of the Conscription Department of ,the Fifth Army Corps
Halil Sami

Second Telegram
Supplement to the Coded Message No: 28 dated April 4, 1916

The Conscription Section of the 15th Division reported that a 40-man detachment from the Kayseri Military Police Company under the command of Rahmi Efendi from the Bogazliyan Branch was dispatched to make investigations and searches in the above-mentioned region. Hereby submitted for your information.
April 5, 1916

Chief of the Conscription Department of the Fifth Army Corps
Halil Sami

To the Staff Section of the Headquarters
Dated April 7

Archive No : 1-131
Cabin No : 149
Drawer No : 4
File No : 2287
Section No : 11
Index No : 5-7


DOCUMENT NO: 2024 (171)

Decoded Message 267/March 15, 1917 from the Supreme Cummand of the Ottoman Army

Coded Message dated March 14, 1917

Purchase the wagons and livestock of the departing Armenians. However, no harm should be done to these people. Set up a Purchasing Commission to determine the real values of these wagons and livestock and make the payments to their owners accordingly.
March 15, 1917.

Commander of the Fourth Army

Archive No : 4/14878
Cabin No : 178
Drawer No : 2
File No : 3315
Section No : 464(233)
Index No : 31-1.A

DOCUMENT NO: 2025 (172)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command

Coded Message No. 883 from the Acting Command of the Caucasian Army Group

The Islamic population who managed to escape from Erzincan via Dersim report that the Russians round up the whole Moslem population of Erzincan, hand them over to Armenian committees and have them annihilated by these committees. They also report that all kinds of atrocities including public rapes, beatings and other types of humiliations are very widespread and that all possessions of the Moslems have been pillaged. Submitted to your kind attention for the necessary political initiatives to stop this cruelty and barbarism in Erzincan undoubtedly exercised in line with the wishes of the Russians.
May 9/10, 1917

Commander of the Caucasian Army Group
Ahmet Izzet

Ordered to be conveyed to the Prime Ministry and Ministry

Acting Supreme Command
No: 2796

May 10, 1917
Section: 2

Archive No : 1/2
Cabin No : 108
Drawer No : 4
File No : 318
Section No : 1034(1287)
Index No : 1-71
May 10, 1917 Hours: 4.30

DOCUMENT NO: 2026 (173)

War Documents File

Army Headquarters
December 11. 1918

Wireless Telegram in Russian

To General Liyutnan Odeshelidje, Commander of the Russian
Caucasian Army

Your Honourable General,

I have received your kind message No. 15. 132 on January 24, 1918. 1 would like to express my profound gratitude for your promise of putting an end to the Armenian atrocities and fiercely punishing those responsible for the mass killings in Erzincan in particular. However, please allow me to point out that the incidents reported to us by those who escape from the Armenian brutalities after having witnessed the terrible atrocities and by those who take shelter in our territories and the case reported to your highness are quite similar in nature but contradictory regarding the quantities involved.

I . Prior to the month of January, the Armenians had taken 650 Moslems from Erzincan to unknown places under the pretext of employing them in road building. However, the deplorable fate of these people is very well known.

2. Armenian detachments led by gang leader Murat from Sivas ordered the Moslem population of the Town of Erzincan to assemble in the Church Square on January 31, 1918. Gang leader Murat ordered the immediate arrest and execution of the representative delegates and headmen who applied to inquire for the reason for this assembly. Later on, Armenian patrols took the people out of their homes in parties and forced them inside the Post and Telegraph Administration Building as well as Vahit Bey's kiosk. Then the Armenians set this kiosk on fire in several places simultaneously at about 3.00 a.m. in the morning. There were around 1,500 Moslems inside the kiosk. Those who attempted to escape from the windows were brutally bayoneted and shot to death by the Armenians surrounding the kiosk.

3. In addition to this, children and women were forced to go into three other big houses and the Fortress barracks inside the town and all were burned to death the same day. Approximately 1,000 houses of the town were burned and destroyed.

4. Armenian gang leader Arshak in Bayburt sent word to nearby Moslem villages that the people should assemble on February 7, 1918. Some people who feared the known outcome of this gathering went to the Ceasefire Commission for help and to take shelter. What happened to those who accepted the call to gather together is quite evident.

5. The numerous bodies of the brutally murdered Moslems lying on the Kase - Trabzon road were a horrible and unbearable sight for the soldiers of the 23rd Turkistan Regiment, it was reported.

6. In short, the mass annihilation of the Moslem population, including even newly burned infants in the territories turned over to Armenians by the Russian Army; burning and destruction of the Trabzon market street and shopping center; usurpation of the tobacco harvest in Gorele and Trabzon; the burning of Rize and other similar incidents and brutalities force me to seek your valuable assistance for putting into effect urgent and effective measures to stop the suffering.

7. Instructions by Murat, an Armenian gang leader in Erzincan, to Arshak, another gang leader in Bayburt, through Mamahatun and Arshak's response to Murat leave no doubt that the Armenians are designing to exterminate the entire Islamic population of the occupied territories. At present, the Ottoman Moslems left at the mercy of the Armenians have no security whatsoever. Your honourable General, I wholeheartedly value and praise all humanitarian considerations as well as the much needed measures and precautions to be taken to prevent such a massacre. All I ask you is to kindly examine the possibilities and to coordinate the productive and effective harmonization of the humane aims and their implementation so that the good willed efforts would actually yield the desired result. Your Honourable General, please accept my sincerest regards.

Certified True Copy

Commander of the Ottoman Caucasian Armies
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 233
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2909
Section No : 452
Index No : 2-4, 2-5

Holdwater: There were two "Murad"s from Sivas. This one was likely not Hamparsum Boyaciyan, who was probably a goner by this year.

DOCUMENT NO: 2027 (174)

War Documents File

To the Acting Supreme Command

Coded Message

Following please find information given by reliable informants regarding the atrocities being committed by the Armenians against the Moslem population:

1. There is hardly any Moslem woman or girl in the occupied territories who has not been raped.

2. Two Moslems were brutally dismembered in "Teke" Village in the east of "Gumushane".

3. 25 Moslems were barbarously slaughtered in their carts in "Tandirlik", "54S". 4. After torturing the headman of "Zanca" Village "57 S" in the north-west of "Gumushane", the Armenians raped his daughter. 15 Armenians came to the same village the next day and again raped the aforementioned headman's daughter. A Greek informant supplied this information.

February 12, 1918
Certified True Copy

Operations- 1049

Commander of the Third Army
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 233
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2909
Section No : 452
Index No : 2-20

DOCUMENT NO: 2028 (175)

War Documents File
Coded Message:

To the Acting Supreme Command

Copies of wireless message No. 1500 dated February 18, 1918 sent to General Odeshelidje and wireless message No. 1623 dated February 21, 1918 sent to General Lebedinsky are hereby submitted for your information.

February 21, 1918
Operations 1129

Commander of the Third Army
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet


No: 1500
February 17, 1918

I am honoured to convey the following information to your highness in response to your telegram No. 15.202 dated February 1, 1918. In view of the good will and generosity extended to us, 1 believe it is my duty to provide you with the following facts revealed by investigations as well as what we have seen in Erzincan.

The number of bodies of the people massacred by the Armenians during the January 15/16 incidents and which were collected from the houses, shops, gardens and barns is 312. These bodies were photographed and they will be buried tomorrow. Among those, 20 are women, 71 are children up to the age of 14, 19 are old people and the remaining 202 are young men over the age of 14. The bodies thrown into wells and then covered with earth in order to prevent the spread of disease are not included in this count, for it is not possible to recover those bodies. According to a statement given by Acting Captain Kazmir who had to stay in Erzincan because of bad health, the number of people massacred in the town is no less than 800. Acting Captain Kazmir's statement also confirms that there is no news on the fate or the whereabouts of 650 Ottoman Moslem from Erzincan captured by the Armenians for the so-called road-building in Sankamis. I will also inform you of the investigations presently being conducted in the villages of Erzincan. Here, I will only let you know what I have personally witnessed. All villages from the Cardakh Pass to Erzican have been destroyed without a single exception and there is no undamaged building in these villages.

No Ottoman Moslem lives in these villages any longer. I have seen that all the barracks in the towns are completely burned and that only some of the barracks in small townships survived the fires. I estimate that at least over 1,000 houses were destroyed in Erzincan. Following the procedure of location, city maps showing the damage will be sent along with the photographs of the murdered people.

I mentioned previously that Vahit Bey's kiosk and the Administration building were burned. Here, 1 would like to correct myself. Neither the Administration building nor Vahit Bey's kiosk were burned. The previous information had been erroneous, although the type of incidents described did take place. The burned house belongs to Huseyin Bey. The burned building is the Zeki Pasha Office building located between the Military Office and the Administration building. AI1 humanistic efforts exerted by Colonel Morel against the Armenian barbarism unfortunately failed. I do not doubt that an honest commander like yourself would approve in view of what happened in Erzincan how compelled and how right I was in taking the measures that I mentioned in my telegram No. 1020 dated February 12, 1918. You can be sure, your honourable general, that I will accept with respect your sincerest wishes. I want to assure you that I am in favour of an honourable peace for both sides which would put an end to the meaningless and vast bloodshed and which would promptly relieve the difficulties and problems of our really exhausted and tormented peoples. I also assure you that the only aim of our advancing operations is to serve humanity and civilization by protecting the honour, property and very lives of all citizens of every creed who were doomed for they had no one to protect them. Moreover, it is also possible that the Islamic population on the east of the ceasefire line and particularly the people in the coastal regions will immediately get organized to retaliate against the atrocities committed by the Armenians against the Moslem population and that the country will suffer further with increasing anarchy. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the Ottoman Christians in such areas against all sorts of aggression and attacks just like the compulsion to protect the Moslems. As a matter of fact, requests for help by delegations representing the Christians in such regions have made this compulsion even more important. For this reason, orders were received to advance until contact is made with the units of the Russian Army and to restore and maintain law and order in the area from where the Russian Army withdrew.

In order to eliminate any misunderstandings, all Ottoman units have been issued absolute orders not to take a hostile attitude against the Russian troops when contact is made. Therefore, I hereby inform you that the above-mentioned operations will be conducted in the area where Ottoman subjects are settled and which previously came under the occupation of the Russian Army in the course of war, until the aforementioned contact is made.

I believe it is my duty to emphasize once again that the Russian units are not the target of the forward operations of my armies. The state of restoring law and order, in other words, the target of this advance operation will be achieved with the occurrence of the first contact with the Russian units. Please accept my profound regards.

Commander of the Ottoman Caucasian
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet

Certified True Copy
To Colonel Muhittin Bey, Communications Inspector in Susehri

Let Yakup Efendi translate the message, whose copy is hereby attached. Convey this message to General Liyotnan Odeshelidje, the Commander of the Russian Caucasian Army through wireless. Send the message only with my signature. Do nor write anything else besides the signature.

Commander of the Third Army
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 233
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2909
Section No : 452
Index No : 2-45, 2-46

DOCUMENT NO: 2029 (176)

War Documents File
No: 1623

February 21, 1918


To General Liyotnan Odeshelidje. the Commander of the Russian Caucasian Army

I request that the following telegram be sent and delivered to General Lebedinsky, the Commander-in-Chief. Russian Caucasian Armies.


Your Honourable General

I am honoured to let you know that I have received your telegram sent by cable No. 15.206 dated February 2, 1918 by General Liyotnan Odeshelidje, Commander of the Russian Caucasian Army.

1. Of all the Armenian atrocities described, I listed for your information only those documented by reliable sources. My personal impressions and views concerning the Town of Erzincan were also listed in my telegram No. 1500 dated February 17, 1918 to General Odeshelidje. I believe that General Odeshelidje informed you of my message. For this reason, I think that there is no need for further explanations. Peace has not been established yet and the fate of the Ottoman territories under Russian military occupation has not been determined by any treaty. The official documents in our archives reveal that military units have been set up from Ottoman Armenians for possible use in the front line and that these units devoid of discipline and order have been committing various crimes and atrocities that could not be prevented until now. Therefore, the Ottoman Army is carrying out forward operations with the primary objective of protecting and saving the Ottoman Moslems living in the occupied territories and of restoring law and order in this area. These operations are not aimed at the Russian troops. However, it is necessary to point out to your highness that your comment that our forward operations would worsen the situation of the Moslem population in the said area would in a way amount to the legitimization of the Armenian atrocities which had been repeatedly documented and contradict the aims of peace and prosperity shared by our two nations. I would also like to point out that in my view such opinions would encourage the policy of annihilating the Ottoman Moslems still living under the Armenian tyranny. As seen from my previous correspondence, I think it is worth mentioning once again that we appreciate and respect the Russian Army for fighting an honourable and courageous war against us before the very eyes of the civilized world for three years during which all civilized and humane values were respected. The incidents that broke out after the fighting will not erase our judgement of the Russian Army. However, we also believe that it is our duty to save the Ottoman subjects who came under tyrannical oppression following the withdrawal of the distinguished Russian Army that we regard as friendly even though peace is yet to be established. You should appreciate the fact that we cannot remain as passive spectators before the annihilation of the Moslem population by Armenian atrocities following the withdrawal of the Russian Army. Finally, I would like to point out that, before history and humanity I am not going to be responsible for and accused of any unexpected event that might take place as a result of your misunderstanding of my pure and sincere aims. Such responsibility would belong to the side which cannot prevent the happening and continuation of these unfortunate incidents. I have always had full confidence in your wisdom and the sacred aims of peace and prosperity that we share since you have become the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armies in Caucasia. Please accept by sincerest regards.

Certified True Copy

Commander of the Ottoman-Caucasian Armies
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 233
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2909
Section No : 452
Index No : 2-50, 2-51

DOCUMENT NO: 2030 (177)

War Documents File

February 21, 1918

To the Acting Supreme Command

Enclosed please find the copies of the statements of a Russian captain and a Russian private who stayed in Erzincan during the occupation of this town as recorded by the First Caucasian Army Corps.

Certified True Copy

February 16, 1918

To the Third Army Command

The following are the statements of the Russian Acting Captain Karmir, the Russian Private Alexander and a woman named Pash who alleges to be a Russian. All of the aforementioned persons stayed in Erzincan following its occupation. 1. The Acting Russian Captain said that he is an officer of the 13th Turkistan Regiment. He said that he became ill while he was stationed in a line unit and came to Erzincan. He noted that he stayed in Erzincan following the withdrawal of all the Russian forces and that the Armenian soldiers leaving the Russian units as well as the Armenians living in the vicinity formed some regiments. He said that he became the commander of a machine gun company consisting of Armenians and added that since he stayed in Erzincan he saved many Moslem families from atrocities. He said that the Armenians had two 400-men battalions, two Maxim machine guns and two artillery weapons in Erzincan. He said that 15 officers of the battalions were Armenians and that there were around six Russian officers in one Georgian unit and in ! the machine gun troops. He said the Russians were employed in supply work and that the detachment commander was a Russian of French origin named Morel who previously commanded the 27th Russian Regiment. He said that the Armenians ordered the assembly of the Moslems for "work" in Sarikamis and then massacred them all when they proceeded two kilometers away from the town. He said that the presence of Russian officers among the Armenians prevented a massacre of larger proportions and added that he heard the Armenians say they slaughtered 800 Moslems in one night. He said that the soldiers were staying at the garrison and Morel at the barracks. He said that while the Russians were abandoning the lines in an orderly manner, the reconcentration of forces in Erzincan and in further rear was carried out in confusion and disorder. He said that the Armenians believed that the Turks would not arrive until the end of February 13, 1918 and that they even tried to have lunch in the garrison. He also added that the Armenians escaped when he wanted them to do so. Following my investigation on the Moslem house where this Russian officer was staying, I found that the women were indebted to him and I had the impression that this officer was spying for the Armenians by using these women. Therefore, the son-in-law of a Moslem woman, a person named Ziya who stayed in Erzincan was arrested. The son of this woman had previously left Erzincan along with the military units during our evacuation of the town.

2. Russian private named Alexander was born in Baku in 1896. He said that he was from the line-building section of the 5th Telegraph Company of the First Engineering Battalion of the First Caucasian Army Corps. Engineering battalions consisted of 12 companies, one of them being the Telegraph Company. He said that he was assigned to the wireless telegram company in Alexanderpole and that he was sent to the 153rd Regiment two years ago. He said that he came to Erzincan with this regiment. He said that the Russians began to evacuate Erzincan in a very orderly manner at First, but the withdrawal of forces became very disorderly later on. He noted that the Russians had completely withdrawn from Erzincan 32 days ago. The withdrawing units, he said, went as far as their original conscription offices. While the Telegraph Company was leaving the city, he said, he received orders from the Staff Section of the Army Corps to stay in Erzincan to repair the telegram lines. He said that he could not leave Erzincan because the roads were closed following the beginning of the Armenian atrocities. During the evacuation of the town by the Russians, he said, the Armenians announced that those who wanted to stay would get higher salaries but no one stayed in Erzincan. He indicated that he did not know whether the three telegraph officers he later saw received orders or volunteered to stay in the city and its vicinity. One of these officers was in Han Village, the other in Cors Village and the third one in the city, he said. He said that he did not know anything about a machine gun officer who was killed during clashes with the Kurds. He noted that he overheard someone speaking on the telephone that such an officer had been killed. He also said that he did not know how the Russians surrendered the city to the Armenians. He said that although the Russians did not want to surrender the machine guns and the artillery weapons to the Armenians, they had to do it when they received orders from the High Command. The Armenians, he said, took the weapons from the Russian Army's munitions depot in Erzincan. He said that he did not know the whereabouts of the munitions depot or whether any weapons had been left. He said that while he was in Ciftlik Village he heard that the Armenians massacred the people and destroyed the town of Erzincan. He noted that the Russian officers who stayed in Erzincan were against the atrocities the Armenians were committing but added that he did not know if any of these officers tried to prevent the cruelty. He also said that he overheard the Armenians speaking in Russian saying that the Turks would not have any food supplies if they came to Erzincan. He said that he had no idea regarding the whereabouts of the supply and munitions depot and that he thought ail supplies had been taken away. However, he said, there might be a supply depot in Tercan. He heard that the First Armenian Regiment came from Erivan to Erzurum about a month ago. He also added that he did not know Acting Captain Kazmir in Erzincan for he mct this officer following the Turkish occupation of the town.

3. The Russian woman said that her name was Pash and that she was from Rostok. She said that she had lived in Sarlkamis for 15 years with her husband, a clerk named Petro. She said that her husband was recruited in the army as a private and had his wife brought to Erzincan while he was in the town. She said that her husband was appointed as a forest-keeper for the Sarikamis woods but was killed by the Armenians when he went there to assume his duty.

After losing her husband, she said she had no one to protect her, so she started to work as a cook at the Officers' Club while the Russians were in Erzincan. When the Russians were evacuating Erzincan, a Russian automobile driver promised her that he would take her and her children to Russia on his return, she said. She noted that she could not go to her homeland because this driver never returned. She said that the Russians had completely evacuated Erzincan about a month ago. She stated that the Armenians set up a central committee a week after the Russian withdrawal and began to oppress the people brutally, paying no attention to the warnings of the Russian civil servants. She noted that as a result of the Russians taking all the automobiles, airplanes, weapons and war equipment and rejecting the previous Armenian demands for autonomy, the relations between the Russians and the Armenians had deteriorated and even clashes broke out between the Russian and Armenian units near Tiflis. She said that she heard support forces would be dispatched from Tiflis and Alexanderpole to aid the Armenian units but that these forces did not arrive following the worsening of the Russian-Armenian relations. She noted that there were many Armenians in Erzincan who were born in Turkey but had spent many years in Russia. She said that the only Russian-Armenian she knew was a physician named Bagdasarov. She added that she heard there were six Russian officers left in Erzincan but she did not go to visit them for she was afraid of the Armenians. She said she did not know what happened to these officers. She heard from an Armenian that one of these officers had been killed in a clash with the local population. She indicated that although the Armenians announced during the Russian withdrawal that if Russian soldiers were to stay in Erzincan they would receive one
hundred times of their normal salary, nobody stayed in the town. She said that she did not know whether any Russian soldier stayed in the other occupied regions. She also noted that she heard the Armenians passing by her window saying that they had slaughtered all the people living in Erzurum and its environs and that they would do the same thing in Erzincan. She said that the Armenians had abducted her 9-year old son Niko and that she did not know what they had done to her son. She noted that following the abduction of her son, she hid with her 5 year old child and never went outside again. She added that she heard the clashes with the Armenians the night the Turkish troops had occupied Erzincan but continued to hide because she thought that the Armenians who received support forces were massacring the people and she could not think that the Turks were coming. She said that she found out only the next day that the town had been liberated by the Turks.

Certified True Copy
Commander of the First Caucasian Army Corps
Kazim Karabekir

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 233
Drawer No : 2
File No : 2909
Section No : 452
Index No : 52, 52-1, 52-2, 52-3

Holdwater: Quite an indictment of the Armenians, by Russians.

DOCUMENT NO: 2031 (178)

Hour: 5
February 23, 1918

Signature (Salih Fahreddin)

To the Third Army Command

I . Mamahatun (Tercan) was liberated yesterday (February 22, 1918) just before 10 o'clock. Our units came across no Armenian bandits in Cilingirler in the southeast of Mamahatun, in Cinar Kolnu in the east, and in Vartik and Peteric in the north.

2. Our forward units are in the Belegaz, Cinar Komu, Vartik and Peteric line 14 kilometers southeast of Mamahatun.

3. Our reconnaissance units sent in the directions of Bardakci and Karadivan to make contact with the Fourth and the Second Army Corps have not yet returned because of adverse weather conditions.

4. According to Hasan Aga from Kukurtlu Village, about 1000 Armenians with six artillery weapons went to the east via Yenikoy on February 21, l918 and massacred and burned around 300 Moslems.

5. Mamahatun was completely burned. In one place only a few food cans and some tea could be found. Officialc were sent From thc division to determine the quantities. It has been established that the Armenians burned down all food and supply depots in Bican, Asagi Zagkiri and Mamahatun. Searches are continuing in the area to find food and supplies.

6. This report was delivered to the Errincan Telegraph Center on February 23, 1918 just before 6.45 hours for delivery to the commands of the Third Army, the Second Caucasian Army Corps and the Fourth Army Corps.

February 23, 1918

Commander of the First Caucasian
Army Corps
Kazim Karabekir

Archive No : 4-3671
Cabin No : 163
Drawer No : 5
File No : 2948
Section No : 208 (634)
Index No : 7-7. 7-8

DOCUMENT NO: 2032 (179)

War Documents File
February 23, 1918


Coded Message

To the Acting Supreme Command
To the Thunderbolt Group Command
To the Sixth Army Command
To the Fourth Army Command

I. It has been reported that there were Armenian gangs in the "Adilcevaz" area of the Fourth Army Corps front. Ahlat was occupied on February 21, 1918 and Purhus village in the southeast of Nazik Lake was occupied the next day. An enemy motor boat fired for a period of time without any effect and sailed in the direction of "Van". Our reconnaissance units who advanced as far as "Abdal Beyazit" in the northwest of Narik Lake did not encounter any enemy. The villages of Muhacir. Til and Ziyaret (39 L) in the Mus plains were occupied. The reconnaissance units sent in the direction of Asagi Korni did not encounter any enemy in the vicinity of Muz-I Suflu (46 L) and Drayi (45 L). There is a snowstorm in this army corps front

2. Our units liberated Mamahatun on February 22, I918 in a stare of burnt ruins on the First Caucasian Army Corps Front. Reserve units were sent to the line of Pelegoz (47 K ) Cinar Komu-Vartik (48 F). Peceric (50 G). The villagers reported that around 1,000 Armenian bandits with 6 artillery weapons retreated to the east via Yenikoy (46 G) on February 21, 1918 and killed around 300 helpless Moslems on their way to the east.

3. No changes took place in the position of the Second Caucasian Army Corps.

4. The weather is sometime cloudy, sometimes clear, but extremely cold.

5. This report was delivered to the Susehri Telegraph Office just after 8 o'clock for delivery to the Acting Supreme Command, and the Commands of the Thunderbolt Group, the Fourth and the Sixth Armies.
February 23. 1918 Operations-54

Certified True Copy
Commander of the Third Army
Lieutenant General
Vehip Mehmet

Archive No : 4-367
Cabin No : 163
Drawer No : 5
File No : 2909
Section No : 17 (452)
Index No : 58

DOCUMENT NO: 2033 (180)

Supreme Acting Command of the Ottoman Army

Section No: 1655
Drafting Date: March 3, 1918
Writing No: 1454

To the Third Army Command

I request the following to be conveyed to the High Command of the Russian Caucasian Army accordingly.

The Armenians continue to commit the most treacherous and cruelest crimes against the Islamic population devoid of any protection and self defence whenever they find an opportunity.

The High Russian Command is kindly requested to take prompt action to put an end to these atrocities in view of humanistic considerations and the peaceful days ahead. For, it should be taken into account the fact that the Islamic population who is ready to explode because of the reports of Armenian cruelties might finally lose its patience and revolt everywhere to take revenge against the Armenians.

The message has been coded
Dated 3

Acting Commander-in-Chief
Signature (Enver)


Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : 181
Drawer No : 4
File No : 528
Section No : 2063
Index No : 1-4

DOCUMENT NO: 2034 (181)

May 7, 1918

To the Commander of the 36th Caucasian Division


Enmities began to appear between the Moslems and Armenians of the Province of Erivan as a result of the Armenian-Moslem fighting which has been going on in Caucasia for more than two months. At present the Armenian gangs are slaughtering the Moslems and destroying the villages one after another. Armenian bandits massacred the Moslem population of over 30 villages in hunting grounds of the Province of Erivan and burned and destroyed the villages. The Moslems of the Province of Erivan are experiencing extremely difficult times in the face of this killing and catastrophe. It has been reported that the Armenians surrounded the Moslem quarters of the city of Erivan. Every day many sick, wounded and old people including women and girls are coming to Kagizman from Erivan. Unfortunately, most of them are dying of hunger and lack of shelter. Those who manage to survive need. everything, including food and shelter. These people are begging. I hope this miserable situation of our Moslem brethren in the Province of Erivan would be made known in Turkey.

I kindly request the esteemed Commander to provide moral and material support for these people and find and specify resettlement areas for the emigrants.

Submitted to your highness with sincerest respects.

Acting Chairman of the Kagizrnan Branch of the Moslem Charity Society of Baku for Aiding War Survivors and the Mufti of the Caucasian Front

Idris Ahuntzade Genceli

Archive No : 1 /2
Cabin No : 178
Drawer No : 1
File No : 373
Section No : 1484
Index No : 15-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2035 (182)

Third Army Command From Army Headquarters
Section: 1
No: B. 19

Article 1

According to the peace treaty signed in Batum on June 4 between the Ottoman State and Armenian delegates, this land should have been vacated. As a matter of fact, the Armenian units in the Serdarabat region withdrew further East and inside Armenia. However, the withdrawal of troops took place only in the Serdarabat region. The Uluhanli, Kamarli, Nahcivan and Culfa regions which should have been vacated in line with the treaty, are still under occupation and some of our units that tried to enter the area had been attacked by Armenian civilians and soldiers who remained in this area or who had been sent from Armenia. As a result, our units suffered considerable losses. It is still not possible to make use of the Serdarabat- Culfa railway because of the Armenian soldiers and bandits. The Ottoman troops vacated Basabaran and the area south of it and withdrew as far as immediately south of the Karakilise-Alexanderpole railway.

The Karakilise-Dislih-Celaloglu area presently under occupation will be vacated immediately following mutual agreement between the Armenian and Georgian governments regarding the determination of the common border and informing the Ottoman government of the result in accordance with the treaty.

Since the Armenian and Georgian governments have not yet determined the common border, it is necessary to await the results of the Istanbul Conference. Please be confident that the Ottoman troops will certainly withdraw to the rear of the borderline passing just west of the Akbulak station as soon as the common border is determined.

The Ottoman and Armenian delegates negotiating in Alexanderpole made decisions regarding the use of the railways and roads in Armenia in line with the treaty. The Karakilise-Kazak road will be used for transportation purposes in accordance with the said decisions.

The occupation of the Akbulak-Kalagiran area by the Ottoman troops until the border between the two Republics is officially determined is, in my opinion, perhaps beneficial rather than detrimental for Armenia and Armenians. There is no harm in the return of the Armenians to their villages in the military occupied zone. No harm shall be done to them. On the contrary, the Armenians who return shall be treated very well.

Article 2

For the present, the return of the people to their homes in the provinces of Kars, Ardahan and Artvin is out of the question. The atrocities committed against the Moslem population by the Armenian units and gangs during their retreat before the Ottoman Army were so painful and distressing that at present it is impossible to protect the Armenians who are returning against retaliatory attacks. It is necessary to wait until the public calms down. This matter has been included in the messages sent in response to letters received from Mr. Sahakyan, Acting Speaker of the Armenian National Assembly in Tiflis and Mr. Karanoryan. Therefore, we are thinking of dealing with the question of the return of the refugees from Ahiska, Ahilkelek, Alexanderpole and lgdir to their homes at a more suitable time in the days ahead.

Archive No : 4-6520
Cabin No : 240
Drawer No : 1
File No : 3188
Section No : 50
Index No : 2-37, 2-38


DOCUMENT NO; 2036 (183)


Yukari (Upper) Talin
June 20, 1918

To the First Caucasian Army Corps Command

A few people from the Moslem population of Ekrek village, 20 kilometers east of Erivan, Kerpikli village, l l kilometers east of Erivan and Karakola village, 26 kilometers northeast of Erivan, went to Erivan and today they went from there to Yukari Talin. These villagers reported that the survivors from 22 villages northeast and east of Erivan took refuge in the plateaus of the Uctepeler Mountain, 20 kilometers west of Nuvo Beyazid. They said that a great number of people want to move to our side. They also noted that the Moslem people in Erivan sought permission from the Armenian Commander in Erivan for migration and added that their request was turned down. They said that presently the Armenians were massacring the Moslems and noted that 20 Moslem families who had migrated from Akcakale Village, 10 kilometers east of Erivan, to Erivan via Sorbulak, were all killed by Armenians between Sorbulak and Tokmakkent on the night of June 17/18, 1918. They said that such massacres were going on all the time. They also asked us to mediate with the Armenian Commander in Erivan to facilitate the permission for a great number of Moslems who want to move to our side. They also asked us to use our good offices to prevent the Armenian attacks against the Islamic population of the villages near Erivan, because these people cannot return to their villages and they live in the mountains.
June 29, 1918 Operations

Ninth Division Commander

Archive No : 1/2
Cabin No : 178
Drawer No : 4
File No : 401
Section No : 1578
Index No : 2-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2037 (184)

Eastern Armies Group Command
from Group Headquarters
June 28, 1918

T.H. in Batum / 13

To be translated into French

To Honourable Monsieur Sihakyan, Acting Speaker of the Armenian National Assembly

The violence and cruelty of the Armenian emigrants from Alexanderpole and Ahilkelek against the Islamic population in the beginning have created considerable tension in public opinion. Although it is apparent that not all of these emigrants are responsible for violence, it is not possible to differentiate the guilty and the innocent as a result of the extreme anxiety of the public at present. Therefore, I would like to emphasize the necessity of delaying the repatriation of the emigrants until the expected peace and tranquility is established. Please accept my regards.

Acting Commander of the Eastern
Lieutenant General

Signature (Salih)

Archive No : 4-6520
Cabin No : 240
Drawer No : 1
File No : 3188
Section No : 50
Index No : 2-18

DOCUMENT NO: 2038 (185)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command

Coded Message from Kars in the Ministry of Defence

I . According to reliable information received so far, the Armenian units proceeded to the vicinity of Vedi and Sadarak villages, immediately east of the railway line northeast of Erivan and massacred the Moslem population; Alizade Demir Bey and Fethi Beyzade Bedri Bey, two leading members of the Islamic community, are among the murdered; around five to six hundred Moslems who crossed the Aras River are marching to Bayezid in a very wretched state; and the Armenians are advancing toward Hani Hilar, south of Sadarak and massacring the Moslems on their way.

2. It has been reported by reliable sources that an Armenian bandit named Yapun and his gang of around 1,200 men started to massacre the Moslems in the vicinity of Nahcivan on December 5, 1918; that they massacred 688 people in a place called Elmali, 40 kilometers north of Nahcivan, and 516 people in Agus, 12 kilometers northwest of the other area: that they gathered around 2060 people in "drhmyrarak" after they grouped the young women separately and then killed all the people: that they locked 40 women and children in a room and burned them alive: that they raped village notable Seyid Huseyin's wife in the village mosque; that the frightened Moslem population in the region abandoned their homes and villages and at present they have no shelter or food; that the Armenians usurped the food stocks of the people living in the villages south of Echmyadzin; that the headman of Haci llyas Village, 15 kilometers south of Erivan, and two of his friends were summoned to Erivan and executed in the city; that the whereabouts of 25 people who were taken away is still not known; anu that the Tepeba~i, Haci Torzalari and Girbulak quarters of Erivan where Moslems live were all torched. Although attempts were made regarding this matter vis-a-vis the Armenian Government, I kindly request you to focus the attention of the Ally delegations in Istanbul on these inhumane massacres and extreme tragedy and complement the measures in order to put an end to this barbarism going on in the cold of the winter.

December 27, 1918
Operations 6052

Commander of the 9th Army

December 31, 1918. Copy delivered to the Preparatory Commission.

Also, the letter written to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been delivered to the Second Section.

Archive No : 1/2
Cabin No : 2
Drawer No : I
File No : 63
Section No : 17(244)
Index No : 20, 20.1

DOCUMENT NO: 2039 (186)

Section: 2
Branch: I
Signature (Not clear)

December 28, 1918

To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The coded message dated December 26, 1918 from the Ninth Army Command reports that the Armenians who arrived following the withdrawal of the Ottoman forces from Igdlr, began barbaric actions and cruel massacres against the Moslems. The Armenians are gathering the Moslem youth in the town of Igdrr and sending them to unknown places and forcibly seizing the food supplies of the Islamic population. The Moslems who had to leave their homelands to take shelter in the Ottoman territories, are travelling in the snow where the average temperature ranges from minus ten to fifteen degrees and are asking the Ottoman Government for their help. It has been reported that the Army is constantly receiving similar touching telegrams and letters. You are kindly requested to exert effective efforts to stop this massacre either through initiatives directly addressed to the Armenian Government or through the good offices of the Allied officials stationed in the said area.

Clean copy made.
January 1, 1919
Signature (Mehmet Ali)
December 31, 1918, Delivery made

To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

The coded message received from the Ninth Army Command has been presented to your highness. This message regrettably shows that the Armenians are practicing a systematic plan aiming at the extermination of all the Moslems in the Aras Valley, the area we occupied but later vacated in compliance with the Batum Armistice. We kindly ask you to bring this important matter to the attention of the Allied and neutral countries in order to save at least those who still survive and put an end to this barbaric massacre of the innocent Moslems who have no support or protection.


To be preserved.
January 2, 1919

Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : 171
Drawer No : 5
File No : 103
Section No : 367
Index No : 4-7, 4-8

DOCUMENT NO: 2040 (187)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command
Section: 2 Section/l73

Cachet (Acting Supreme Command) / 138

Coded Message No: 581 from Kars to the Ministry of Defence

According to the statements of the Moslems in the vicinity of Serdarabat and Erivan who took shelter in the Ottoman territories and whose names are being kept secret, the Armenians seized all the possessions and food supplies of the Islamic population even including worn dresses and underwear. They raped the Moslem women and demanded 30 times the tax being paid during the Russian Administration. The possessions of those who could not afford to pay those high taxes were pillaged. While ..... (not clear) people from the Islamic population of lgdir were on their way to take shelter in the Ottoman territories, they were attacked by the Yazidis of Saricoban village, 10 kilometers north of Igdir. Many Moslems lost their lives as a result of the Yazidi fire. The gendarmes of the Armenian Government seized all the money, possessions and food supplies of the Moslems. Later on, the Moslems were ordered to go to the Gendarmerie posts to pay money. However, the fact that the people who went have never returned leaves no doubt that they were all massacred. I would like to point out that this genocide, many examples of which were repeatedly presented, will become widespread and increase day by day unless it is stopped through initiatives to the governments of the Allied countries. Operations 67/January 4, 1919

Commander of the Ninth Army

To the General Staff Headquarters. Dated 5

January 7, 1919
Times: Just before 11.00
To be written by the First Branch. January 8, 1919

Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : 171
Drawer No : 5
File No : 103
Section No : 367
Index No : 4-12

DOCUMENT NO: 2041 (188)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command
Section: 2
No: M

Cachet (Acting Supreme Command) / l65

Coded Message from Kars to the Ministry of Defence

Many people are being killed in Batum every day. Three of our soldiers and the Russian General Barhi Oshet were murdered the night of January 5/6, 1919. According to the British Commander, the murderer of the general is a British private. Although the British General, the Military Governor of Batum, promised to court martial the British private and to punish the murderers of our soldier:, there is no doubt that such incidents will continue and increase in number because the British Command has no control over the situation and their units. Voluntary militia consisting of Greeks and Armenians are breaking into our officers' residences in the city and are seizing all their possessions, including the simplest personal effects. I would like to point out that more grievous incidents will occur unless the British Command in Batum receives direct orders through contacts with the representatives of the Allies in Istanbul. Operations 132.
January 6, 1919

Commander of the 9th Army

January 8, 1919
Time: Just before 10.15

To be communicated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and General Wilson by the First Section

Procedure going on
Signature (Hifzi)

Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : 171
Drawer No : 5
File No : 103
Section No : 367
Index No : 11-3

DOCUMENT NO: 2042 (189)

Ottoman Army
Acting Supreme Command

Coded Message No. 2214 from Erzurum to the Ministry uf Defence

I . The Armenians are raiding the villages in the Gurnru S (coded) region east of Arpacayi Brook and are seizing the animals and food supplies of the Moslem population. They are also rounding up 20 to 30 leading members of the Moslem communities almost every day under the pretext of sending them to Gumru and then they murder them. A Mujaheed (freedom fighter) called Meshet Ali "atkdala" (coded) is resisting the Armenians in the Nahcivan region.

2. It has been reported that in the morning of January 21, 1919, a Georgian unit of 300 soldiers supported by artillery fire attacked Ardahan's Yuskamen Village. According to information received, the villagers returned fire and following an 8-hour battle, the Georgian unit retreated, leaving behind four machine guns and casualties. It has also been reported that two Moslems were killed in this action. Submitted for your information.
Operations 291/January 21, 1919

First Section

Commander of the 9th Army

To General Staff Headquarters/Dated 23
Time: Just after 1.00

Message conveyed from the Second
Section to the Office of the Prime Minister
January 24, 1919

Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : 2
Drawer No : 1
File No : 63
Section No : 244
Index No : 23

DOCUMENT NO: 2043 (190)

First Section

To the General Staff Headquarters
July 28, 1919


Decoded Message from Erzurum to the Ministry of Defence

I have learned about the important articles of the telegram that British Representative Lieutenant Colonel Rawlinson, who has been making investigations in the border region and on the Armenian side of the border for a period of time and who has witnessed the very barbaric treatment of the Moslems by the Armenians as well as the Armenian operations aimed at the annihilation of the Moslems, delivered to British Captain Fletcher in Erzurum on July 25, 1919 for immediate conveyance to the British General Headquarters in the sublime Port (Istanbul). Even though the massacres committed by the Armenians on the frontier starting from Oltu to the Bayezid border are confirmed in this telegram, the immediate dispatch of the Allied forces are requested to bring the cruel Armenian nation to reason which is not subject to any sort of control. It is very important for us to see in the British Representative's report the need to bring the cruel Armenian nation to reason. I have already expressed in my telegram No. 146 dated July 22, 1919 that with the objective of renewing the military occupation following the withdrawal of the British troops from Caucasia, the British were doing all they could to show that the law and order in Caucasia had been disrupted, carrying out a concerted propaganda campaign and even inciting us to conduct operations against the Armenians particularly in view of the extreme proportions of the Armenian atrocities against the Moslem population and recent violation of our territories by Armenian reconnaissance units in various points. British Lieutenant Colonel Rawlinson seems to realize at last the fact that we are maintaining our moderation and silence, contending with protesting the Armenian violence and that he would not be able to attain his goals even through provocations and incitement. Therefore, he is revealing the truth in his report outlined above and thus is trying to obtain the dispatch of military units to Caucasia. Submitted for your information. Submitted to the Ministry of Defence, Inspectorate. 176

15th Army Corps Commander
July 27, 1919

Archive No : 1/2
Cabin No : 2
Drawer No : 2
File No : 82
Section No : 210 (304)
Index No : 34, 34-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2044 (191)

Ministry of Defence
Supervisory Section

Coding Branch
Section: 2 August 30, 1919

Coded Messaze from Erzurum to the Ministry of Defence

The overt and covert actions of the Armenian Tashnak Society and particularly the establishment of a committee responsible for the annihilation of the Moslems leave no doubt that this organization has decided to exterminate all Moslems in the Revan and Aras regions and in the provinces of Kars, Ardahan and Artvin. As a result of the insistent pursuit of the policy of the extermination of the Moslems designed and carried out by the Armenian government and regular military units, the atrocities being committed against the Moslems in the Revan and Aras regions all well as in Kars, Sarikamis, Igdlr and their vicinities have reached horrendous dimensions. In addition to all the atrocities, torture and cruelties committed so far, the people of Kagizman were rounded up on August 11, 1919, the Islamic villages near Tavas Lake and Yukari (Upper) Katirli were attacked and the villagers massacred on August 12, 1919, and the mass killings of the inhabitants of Kagizman began on August 18, 1919. Similar atrocities are going on in other regions as well. The Armenians are seizing the produce and food supplies in Islamic villages and are preventing the villagers from working in the fields. To this end, they are attacking using machine guns and artillery pieces. It was observed from our side of the border on August 19, 1919, that a biplane flying over the highlands attacked the people by dropping bombs. It has been reported that the Armenians were raping the women and forcing the naked women to march with the soldiers. According to information received, those who witness such atrocities including the forced-march of the nude women in particular are extremely disturbed and agitated, and some people have given up migration or looking for shelter and chosen martyrdom by retaliating against the Armenians in order to protect their honour and life. It has also been reported that even some of the Moslems who had already migrated to our side are going back to their homelands and joining their fellow countrymen and that clashes are taking place between the Moslems and the Armenians near Igdir, Kagizman and Sarikamis. Submitted to the Ministry of Defence and the Army Corps.

15th Army Corps Commander
Kazim Karabekir

August 26/27, 1919
Received on August 29/30, 1919

Archive No : 1-1
Cabin No : 1
Drawer No : 2
File No : 23
Section No : 151 (92)
Index No : 110. 110-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2045 (192)

Very Urgent

March 7, 1920

To the Representatives of the Allies in Istanbul
To the Honourable Admiral Bristol

I . Our nation awaiting the signing of the decisive peace treaty since the signature of the Moudros Armistice regrets to witness that the Allied Powers are occupying on various pretexts the most important portions of the remaining parts of the fatherland. Our nation hopes that this situation will be changed justly by the righteous decision of the Peace Conference in line with our fair and justified demands. In the meantime, however, those who seek to create unfavorable trends in Europe for the sake of their own interests, in order to frame a peace treaty with the most disastrous conditions for Turkey, have once again fabricated false and unfounded news alleging that 20,000 Armenians have recently been massacred in Anatolia. In view of the fact that the Allied countries and the United States Administration have a myriad of informants and reliable sources of information all over Anatolia, we had hoped that the foreign sources would not take such fabrications and slander seriously. Therefore, we have not even tried to deny those allegations. However, we are most astonished and grieved today to see that some important foreign circles who are supposed to be well aware of the actual situation credit those lies and that establishing peace, which we regard as the most vital issue of our country, could be delayed. Therefore, we are compelled to categorically deny those allegations of deplorable incidents. We hereby declare that no massacre of Armenians has ever taken place.

2. It is a known fact that many Turks, French soldiers and Armenians among the French units, as well as civilians of various creeds lost their lives during the clashes in the towns of Maras, Urfa and their vicinities. However, this is not a massacre of the Armenians. This is a natural outcome of the clashes and retaliatory encounters with the local population in face of the unbearable assaults of the armed Armenian natives from Cilicia as well as other Armenians brought from different regions, the constant expansion of the occupied territories by the invasion forces without any valid reason, and the tolerance shown by the commanders of the occupation forces regarding the attacks and atrocities of the covetous Armenians against the Moslem population. It is also necessary to add that if the commanders of the occupation forces in Cilicia and its vicinity had not armed, used and protected the Armenians and if they had maintained an equitable and just administration respecting all sections of the society and refrained from the constant expansion with no reason of the repossessed territories which were occupied by the British during the signing of the armistice, those deplorable clashes which took considerable toll from all sides, would have never happened.

3. This is the truth behind those fabrications alleging that Armenians were massacred in Anatolia. Even the letters and other documents sent to the representatives of the Allied Powers by the Armenian Bishop and elite on behalf of the people of Maras who were allegedly massacred confirm the truth. We kindly request the Allied Powers and the United States Administration to set up an International High Commission similar to the one formed in Izmir, to promptly conduct in-situ investigations regarding this alleged Armenian massacre in order to enlighten the whole civilized world with respect to the true nature of the malevolent and ill-intentioned propaganda designed to deceive the whole world and thus clear the honour of the unjustly treated Turkish nation.

To be conveyed to the Istanbul Central Committee and Army Corps for information. Copies to be sent to the Istanbul papers Journalists' Association as well as the Hakimiyet-i Milliye and Vilayet dailies.

Archive No : Ataturk
Cabin No : 169
Drawer No : 3
File No : 23
Section No : 1336/13-1
Index No : 32-1, 32-2, 32-3


DOCUMENT NO: 2046 (193) 

Section 2

To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
To the Ministry of the Interior

Three telegrams received from the Third Army Corps Command in Sivas and dated March 7 and 8, 1920, note that the Armenians have resumed hostilities and atrocities in Hacin and Feke regions; that a group of around 30 Armenian cavalrymen under the command of Kirkor Efendi, Gendarmerie Team Commander of Hacin, are harassing the Moslem populace of Yamanli, Kabarcik and Kazikli villages; that it was reported that Haci Kahya from Kabarcik, Haci Huseyin Aga, Molla Mehmet and Molla Musa from Hokence village were kidnapped and taken to unknown places; that the Moslem population living in the region bordering the Province of Adana as well as the people of Goksun and Aziziye are excited, armed and they are to attack the Adana region; and that although the soldiers are trying to ease the tension, they cannot appease the villagers. Since the occurrence of new incidents is certainly not desired under these very critical circumstances, your office is kindly asked to calm down the people as well as the Armenians of Adana, Hacin, Feke and the Armenian gendarmerie who are causing the agitation.

Presented to the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of the Interior.

Signature (Muzaffer)
Signature (Kadri)
Signature (Cemal)
Signature (Sevket Turgut)
Signature (Fevzi)

Section 2
One copy to be submitted to Section I, assigned forces to be indicated

Archive No : 1-2
Cabin No : 172
Drawer No : I
File No : 113
Section No : 410
Index No : 19, 19-1

DOCUMENT NO: 2047 (194)

No: 45

October 23, 1920

To the Supreme Command of the 12th Division

In response to your official letter No. 2178/533 dated October 1920 with delivery No. 16/20. Enclosed please find three lists containing the names of the villages burnt and destroyed by the Armenians during the last year as well as the number of Moslems murdered by the Armenians.

Chairman of the Popular Council
(Ali Riza)

The number of homeless women and children and the poor whose needs are being met:

Number of People

150 ….The number of Moslems being fed in Karakurt is increasing day by day

73 Malakans …… Those who are being fed in Kagizman following the retreat of the Armenians

25 Russians
145 the Armenian Poor ….Armenians seized the food supplies and possessions of their own countrymen

235 …..The Moslem poor in Kagizman
628…. Total number of people whose needs are being met


1,200 In 54 villages ….Casualties in Perneut and its environs
3,272 In 76 villages….. Casualties in Kagizman and its environs
4,472 …..Total number of casualties

The people were uprooted from their homes by the Armenians by cannon, rifles and machine-gun fire in the villages of Perneut Soviet Section bordering the town of Kagizman.

These destitute people took refuge in the mountains.

Names of the Villages:

Tezekci Village
Yerus “
Incesu “
Civanli-i Ulya
Civanli-i Süfla
Marazi Can
Yukari Sami
Asagi Sami
Diger Aktas
Kaya Harabe

54 villages in total

Nearly 1,200 people from these 54 villages, including women and children were killed and the animals or household goods were seized and pillaged by the Armenians.

The names of the villages attached to Kagizman Township, which were pillaged and destroyed by the Armenians during the last year with the use of cannons and machine-guns:

Alakilise Village

The people who lived in these three villages were the people whose villages were destroyed by the Armenians in 1918.

The possessions of these villagers were pillaged and the villagers were deported.


People from this village are now homeless.

Baskoy v Armutlu
People from these (four) villages are now homeless.


A total of 1,100 heads of sheep belonging to people from these (three) villages were seized during the final Armenian retreat.

Pivik-i Ulya
Pivik-i Süfla
Yukari Karagonül
Asagi Karagonül
Yukar~ Karakolu
Asagi Karakolu

The names of the villages whose inhabitants were massacred and the number of persons murdered:

Name of Village --- Number of persons killed
Kalebasi 200
Gülesnap 180
Karapinar 20
Balikli 70
Baskoy 44
Armutlu 10
Stahan 18
Mecingert 23
Darphane 45
Degirmendere 23
Saatviran 6

Total number of people killed:
The number of people killed since the Armenian invasion of Kagizman:
Grand total of people killed:

About 45 percent of the town of Kagizman was destroyed by the Armenian assailants.

Apart from the Moslem inhabitants killed in these 11 villages, the number of people murdered in the above-mentioned 76 villages is nearly 2,500. A total of about 3.000 inhabitants of those 76 villages are the aggressors. Therefore. no produce, farm animals or household goods have been saved and everything was seized and pillaged by the Armenians. Currently, these villages are completely destroyed and in ruins. About 10,000 people from these villages are now homeless and they have nowhere to go.

Archive No : 6/3152
Cabin No : 14(53)
Drawer No : 5
File No : 884
Section No : 12(18)
Index No : 5 , 5-1, 5-2, 5-3



See also:

Documents On Ottoman-Armenians, Volume I

Documents On Ottoman-Armenians, Volume III

Armenians in Ottoman Documents (1915-1920)


"West" Accounts


Armenian Views


Turks in Movies
Turks in TV


This Site

...Is to expose the mythological “Armenian genocide,” from the years 1915-16. A wartime tragedy involving the losses of so many has been turned into a politicized story of “exclusive victimhood,” and because of the prevailing prejudice against Turks, along with Turkish indifference, those in the world, particularly in the West, have been quick to accept these terribly defamatory claims involving the worst crime against humanity. Few stop to investigate below the surface that those regarded as the innocent victims, the Armenians, while seeking to establish an independent state, have been the ones to commit systematic ethnic cleansing against those who did not fit into their racial/religious ideal: Muslims, Jews, and even fellow Armenians who had converted to Islam. Criminals as Dro, Antranik, Keri, Armen Garo and Soghoman Tehlirian (the assassin of Talat Pasha, one of the three Young Turk leaders, along with Enver and Jemal) contributed toward the deaths (via massacres, atrocities, and forced deportation) of countless innocents, numbering over half a million. What determines genocide is not the number of casualties or the cruelty of the persecutions, but the intent to destroy a group, the members of which  are guilty of nothing beyond being members of that group. The Armenians suffered their fate of resettlement not for their ethnicity, having co-existed and prospered in the Ottoman Empire for centuries, but because they rebelled against their dying Ottoman nation during WWI (World War I); a rebellion that even their leaders of the period, such as Boghos Nubar and Hovhannes Katchaznouni, have admitted. Yet the hypocritical world rarely bothers to look beneath the surface, not only because of anti-Turkish prejudice, but because of Armenian wealth and intimidation tactics. As a result, these libelous lies, sometimes belonging in the category of “genocide studies,” have become part of the school curricula of many regions. Armenian scholars such as Vahakn Dadrian, Peter Balakian, Richard Hovannisian, Dennis Papazian and Levon Marashlian have been known to dishonestly present only one side of their story, as long as their genocide becomes affirmed. They have enlisted the help of "genocide scholars," such as Roger Smith, Robert Melson, Samantha Power, and Israel Charny… and particularly  those of Turkish extraction, such as Taner Akcam and Fatma Muge Gocek, who justify their alliance with those who actively work to harm the interests of their native country, with the claim that such efforts will help make Turkey more" democratic." On the other side of this coin are genuine scholars who consider all the relevant data, as true scholars have a duty to do, such as Justin McCarthy, Bernard Lewis, Heath Lowry, Erich Feigl and Guenter Lewy. The unscrupulous genocide industry, not having the facts on its side, makes a practice of attacking the messenger instead of the message, vilifying these professors as “deniers” and "agents of the Turkish government." The truth means so little to the pro-genocide believers, some even resort to the forgeries of the Naim-Andonian telegrams or sources  based on false evidence, as Franz Werfel’s The Forty Days of Musa Dagh. Naturally, there is no end to the hearsay "evidence" of the prejudiced pro-Christian people from the period, including missionaries and Near East Relief representatives, Arnold Toynbee, Lord Bryce, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, and so many others. When the rare Westerner opted to look at the issues objectively, such as Admirals Mark Bristol and Colby Chester, they were quick to be branded as “Turcophiles” by the propagandists. The sad thing is, even those who don’t consider themselves as bigots are quick to accept the deceptive claims of Armenian propaganda, because deep down people feel the Turks are natural killers and during times when Turks were victims, they do not rate as equal and deserving human beings. This is the main reason why the myth of this genocide has become the common wisdom.