While the English translation
leaves much to be desired, this is a valuable report on what motivated the
Armenians in the late 19th Century... and provides insight on the same
criteria that motivated their murderous actions during the World War I years.
The reporter is a Russian general and ambassador.
Massacres by the Armenians Against the Turks
The Armenians, who had lived the Turks for many years, enjoying all kinds of rights and
freedom and many privileges and bestowals namely social, military, religious, economical,
had turned from a loyal subject into a rebellion which Russian General Mayewsky had
attributed to mainly three reasons: Armenians' going too far in politics, development of
nationalism and independence speculation amongst them and spread of those speculations by
means of monks' efforts by the provocation of the West. The committees and associations
had realized turning of this rebel behavior into action again by the materialistic and
spiritual supports of the West which lead their community from one catastrophe to another.
These attempted activities in which Ottoman's tolerance, patience and great state
tradition had been tried to be exploited and by the way of Christian fanaticism being
incited as well. The price of rebellions, murders, massacres had been always tried to be
invoiced to Turks and Press had been directed in this manner by means of propaganda.
However, the realities which had been attempted to be distorted, had appeared sooner or
later and reflected by foreign authors, investigation committees and conacientious people.
Here, one of these is the Russian General Mayewsky. Mayewsky serving as an Ambassador
firstly in Van later in Erzurum had been presented the Russian General Staff his article
as report. This report being put into a book format had been published as restricted in
few copies. This book called as "The Statistic of Van and Bitlis Provinces" had
been translated from the Russian language into the Ottoman-Turkish language and had been
pressed at Military Printing Office in 1330 (1914) by Cavalryman major Mehmet Sadik, one
of the officers from General Headquarters Intelligence Department. The parts related
directly with Armenians, Russian original being in Russian it ant (?) it's French under the title of "Les Massacres d'Armenie
Statistique des Provinces de Van et de Bitlis" had been published as a separate book
in 1916 and pressed facsimile by Ministry Of Foreign Affair s a couple of years ago.
My dear; Prof Dr. Mustafa KAFALI, whom we wish to express
our appreciation and not being spared his help, was so kind as to help me in making
comparison with the Russian language of the article from which we had translated.
Here I gratefully acknowledge [him].
The fact that the article, as it was yesterday maintaining it's vitality today as
well, had been written by a foreign and from a neutral point of view and shaped from
an official report had set forth its reality and persuasiveness and had shone light
on the facts which had been tried to be introduced incorrectly for years.
Prof. Dr. Azmi SÜSLÜ
Recently changes in the character of Armenian citizens has been observed. All
Armenians who have primary school education were thought to have a lot of knowledge
about politics which was enough for everyone (the nation) to follow them. Being
famous, showing oneself important, knowing a lot about his past; all of these
psychological conditions were in the same degree in every Armenia in this class.
Nevertheless, the Armenians believe that they don't have an important position in
the world's politics today just because they have Turkish nationality. Also they
claim that "The Armenian Nation" will definitely be born again and will
attain the political superiority which is their own right.
Armenian citizens, especially the young, are occupied with all kinds of political
matters and carried away by claiming that they know every detail about politics.
The young Armenian citizens, who can't take themselves away from learning
unimportant things and repeating the jingles of famous revolutionaries, seem to be
the poor and ignorant group which unconsciously drags their citizens into disaster
with their actions instead of bringing safety for them.
The complaints about the unbearable conditions the Armenians in Turkey live are not
quite valid for the Armenians living in cities; because they always have
independence and privileges. When we think of villagers, their conditions are much
better than villagers in central Russia because they were successful in farming and
The Armenian villages according to region villages are less protected by the
Government from the attacks of migrants who pillage the villages they pass ant take
away the flocks.
However, it should not be believed that the Armenians were always exposed to these
attacks. Because if it were so there wouldn't be any Armenian villages. Whereas, the
Armenian villages have always been more rich and prosperous in every period than the
Since the local administration wasn't powerful enough in these regions, some
Armenian villages had suffered more or leas from the tribe chiefs, without being
subject do bad treatment by the Turkish administrators.
Armenian Committees sowed such unrecliance between the Armenians and nomads in 1895
and 1896 that it was impossible to make and improvements in these regions.
There were almost no studies on religious education by the Armenian religion men. On
the other hand, Armenian priests worked very hard in order to spread their idea of
nationalism. For centuries, the religious enmity of Christians against Muslims was
developed between the walls of churches instead of divine duty. Schools and seminars
have greatly helped the religious leaders in this way.
As Eastern Christians their churches also put the principles and traditions of
Christianity aside and occupy themselves mainly with national propaganda.
The Armenian rebellions which have been seen in the main province of Asian Turkey in
1895 and 1896 were neither caused by the extreme poverty of Armenian villagers nor
the pressure they were exposed to. Since these villages belonged to them, they were
more rich and prosperous than their neighbors' villages.
Armenian rebellion were caused by the following three reasons; 1. The known
advancement of the Armenians in politics;
2. The development of nationalism, liberty and independence in the Armenian public
3. The provocation of these concepts by the Western Governments and their expansion
with the efforts and inspirations of the Armenian priests.
The best document related to this subject is the report of B. Cambon who was the
Istanbul ambassador of France. This document is among the documents which were
published in the "Yellow Book" between 1893 and 1897.
Passages from M. Cambon's report
"The Armenians were pleasantly accepted in London. The Gladstone Cabinet
invited the unpleased ones, classified them, put them in order and promised to
support them. Henceforth, the propaganda committee was established in London which
was going to be the source of inspiration.
Two simple concepts had to be adopted by the Armenian people: The concepts of
nationalism and liberty.
The committees believed that it was their duty to spread these... and thus with the
help of propaganda they exploited the deficiency and faults of the Turkish
administration and established secret organizations which will spread the concepts
of national awakening and liberty" (Livre Jaune, Affaires Armeniennes.
B. Cambon clearly claims that the rebellious Armenians believed that their duty was
to make the villagers accept the concepts of nationalism, liberty and autonomy.
In this case, what would the attitude of the Turkish Government be against the
activities of Armenian committees? Could the Turkish Government approve of these
activities which are actually aimed to destroy her?
Two other reports of M. Cambon
"Istanbul, March 27,1894
Last Sunday, while Mr. Asikiyan was leaving the Kumkapt Church after the ceremony in
order to go the Patriachate, a young 15 year old Armenian aimed his gun at him and
shot him a few times. When he was taken to the police station by the gendarme and
was being questioned about the murder, the young Armenian stated that Mr. Afikiyan
was an enemy of Armenians and that he always reported them to the government so the
Armenians had taken an oath to save their community from him..."
"Istanbul, June 3,1894
In recent days an assassination plot was arranged against one member of the Istanbul
Armenian congregation.. Mr. Maksud was thought to be working for the Turks according
to his coreligionists and was declared to be an enemy of the congregation.
Last year the celebration to revive the memory of the Rules and Regulations granted
to the Armenians by Sultan Abdülmecid, was forbidden and Mr. Maksut had refused to
attempt to remove this prohibition. So, from then on, he had gained the hatred of
Two people who had attempted to kill him were Armenian porters.
There is no doubt that we have come face to face with a political crime.
The letters and documents coming from the Armenian committees were found one the murderers
and they admitted that they were hired by a person named Leon.
In this case after the assassination to the patriarch they wanted to again warn the upper
classes of the Armenian congregation which they aecused of betraying their national
action" (Livre Jaune, Affaires Armeniennes,1893-1897).
For ten years, many revolutionaries were released by the intervention of Europe. And, as
soon as they were released they joined the brigands.
The declaration published by the Dashnaks in August 1896 which contains the 12 articled program deals with all kinds of
claims up to press independence and ends with these sentences: "We will die, we know
this well, but the feeling of rebellion which has penetrated to the Armenian's marrow
shows that we are not going to stop threatening the throne of the Sultan until we win our
personal rights even if one Armenian survives. "
In the Balkans people who have become famous with their self sacrifice, courage and with
the way they work, can be found, however can such a person be found amongst the Armenians?
No. Why? Because they have become used to living on the backs of the poor villagers and
they are wild people playing the executioner role. Can this people be called saviors? No,
because the guns in their hands were only used towards the weak people.
And the unarmed Armenian villagers were forced to help the armed rebels at the cost of
The Armenians came together in a known place in London to discuss this matter. Here, they
decided that they needed to firstly stir up troubles, shed blood and attract the attention
of the world.
The rebellious committee was divided to three organizations:
Dashnak, Hnchak (Hunchak) and Armenia (Armenakan?).
These organizations expanded everywhere in order to incite the villagers.
They started with the teachers and with them they inoculated the young with the feelings
of hatred and enmity towards Muslims. Thus, in a short time like 3-4 years many youngsters
unconsciously dedicated themselves to death.
The programs of the committees mentioned above are related to each other only in shading
Towards the end of September in 1890... a band of rebels consisting of 80-90 people was
organized by Serkis Gogonian, a student in Petersburg University. By leaving the Russian
police and border guards behind they started to enter the Turkish border from Kagnzman.
This band of rebels was formed by young Armenian students in Petersburg and the volunteers
living in south Caucasia. None of them knew Turkey, how a border was protected, who a Turk
was, or the topography of the region. They had no idea about these. However this wasn't
important; their main goal was to enter Turkey and to shed a lot of blood there.
The 43 brigands under the administration of Gogonian were encountered with Russian units(
* ) after losing some people it ended and they were taken to the prison in Kars.
The committee members who infiltrated through Iran in 1892 started to smuggle.. In the
course of time, police stations were established to supervise the roads.
Generally the committee members met each other in any village near the border which they
planned to pass at night in order to reach the closest Armenian village. Thus, after
having the chance to hide there for a short time they go on to other Armenian villages in
This villages are in very bad condition. The Armenian rebels have brought these villages
famine by coming and going to them. In this places the committee members have secretly met
with the English ambassador. On their meeting the ambassador has given the Armenian rebels
a lot of help.
In the beginning of September in 1895 a rebellious group was surrounded by the Tokurlu
Turks in the Bogazkesen village. They have informed the Turkish government office units.
About 40 Turks came to Bogazkesen. In order not to make them suspect anything the Turks
had invited them as if nothing would happen and they have sat in small groups to eat lamb.
The Armenian rebels who understood there was something going on, approached these groups
without being seen to them and they held the Turkish under a volley. However since they
had hidden behind the dead horses they weren't able to shoot them and in waiting for the
units to come they took shelter in a mountain.
The Turks who were saved from the effect of this event attacked the Bogazkesen and Azaryan
villages in revenge without delay.
It is necessary to state that not a single word was mentioned about this event in the
English Blue Book. This means that nothing was mentioned in this book about the events
that English Ambassadors could have something to do with; however other such events were
told about in detail.
The Sasun events
The Turks and Armenians lived together peacefully for centuries in
the region... After one year a person named Boyaciyan has taken his place... After these two people many fights
began between the two societies, shortly.
The following lines were found in the 'External Appearance of the Armenian Matter and
Europe's Intervention "paragraph:
"In June 15, 1895 general dismissal was given to political prisoners who were mixed
up in these events in order to prove that they were fully made peace with the rebels. The
next day the doors of all prisons of the empire were opened and hundreds rebels were freed
in the country. "
There were generally no proper explanations given in the press
about this incident. As a matter of fact the things written about Armenians are all
full of lies.
After reflecting the events which took place in Istanbul
on September 18,1895, the Blue Book has exactly written the following: 'No matter
what the importance of the barbarism claims attributed to Turks is, it must be
stated that, the Armenians are the only ones that are responsible for the events
everywhere. Also, the wounding of Bahri and Hamdi Pasha in the middle of the street
in Trabzon is the only reason for the massacre which took place in the region.
moreover, the Armenians in places where rebels remained far away from were at peace.
If the committee members get into action again the Armenians will be poor as
The Zeytun (Süleymanli) events
The young Armenians who came from Europe performed demonstrations with red flags at
the Kazanlik Valley.
The following lines have been written under the title "The Change of the
English Policy Towards the Armenian Matter; "
The English policy was totally changed at the end of November in 1895... The matter
was put on the shelf. Most of the English Consuls in Asian Turkey had to be changed.
For, in the beginning they had shown themselves as supporters of the Armenians.
Even if we can't claim that the English Consuls have personally interfered in the
Armenian riots, we can say that they have become friendly with the chiefs of the
riots so the communication in various places of Turkey worked perfectly.
However everything was changed towards the end of 1896. New consuls were sent and
the English Consul Representative Williams had come to Van in order to take the
place of. B. Alvart who was the Armenians' friend. This last representative clearly
stated that "he came to lay the minds of Armenians" so he has made his
attitude and manner clear.
Even if this situation has made the rebels think, still it hasn't affected the
The young Armenians in Van, who put the idea of rebellion in their minds, have
proved that they could start their action without the help of their friends
The honorable Major Williams whose pushing character and powerful energy is read
from his eyes, has worked for six months in order to materialize his very valuable
idea. Although he has used all the opportunities to make the Armenian rebels give up
their idea, the only thing he was able to do was to delay the events in Van for six
The famous Van rebellion was started in June 1896. After winter when spring started
the Armenian rebels sometimes met with American missionaries and sometimes with
English Consuls in order to discuss the matter.
The consul had not participated in these meetings because his character would not
allow him and also he didn't want to seem interested in the Armenian riot or the
The rebels of Van have worked to attract the attention of Europe on the Armenian
matter in 1895. They have sent letters to the rich Armenians whom they threatened in
order to get money. Within this time a few political crimes were committed by the
rebellious committee of Van. The most important crime was the one committed on
January ö that is on the greatest Armenian holiday which was the killing of priest
Bogos while he was going to church to perform his religious duty. The poor old man
was killed because he had courageously reacted against the vulgar behaviors of some
During the winter of 1895 and 1896 the young Armenians interfered in the activities
of the beat or units and being agitated they sometimes came together in the big
rooms of the houses near the Russian Embassy (Van) where they practiced shooting.
The activities of the American missionaries in Van had also started to expand, for
the money secretly collected and received from London through the English Embassy
was brought to Van and from there it was supposedly camouflaged by associations
established in order to support the poor and was distributed to the related people.
Following the end of 1895 many Armenians had come to Van with the same excuses.
Furthermore, while the, English tried to support the Armenians materially the
Armenians clearly declared that the English were cheaply buying the blood of
Armenians as if it were straw.
Although there were Armenians which came to Van in order to really get some bread to
eat, a while the Government started dealing with the ones that kept their real
identity a secret behind the old clothes they wore so this aroused the conviction
that Armenians held these meetings for the preparation of a definite movement. When
the Armenian meetings began to increase in February and March danger also began to
increase. However when Spring came everything necessary was done to settle down the
Armenians coming from other places. Moreover, the Armenian missionaries who wanted
to act as charitable associations were told that money distributions should be
confined to only Van and that it would be better if the money was given to villages
which really need it.
There was no one left in Van except for a few committee managers; who could take
part in the rebellion and who worked for a daily fee of 3-4 cents and some other
The preparation for riots had been increased in spring. Also, the killing of Turks
and murders such as their bodies being cut up were heard about. The rebels who
realized that especially these kinds of murders weren't being dealt with have become
more and more courageous day by day. In return to this the patience and forbearance
of Muslims was decreasing according to the Armenians' boldness.
The June 1896 Van events
Before discussing the bloody events which took place between the Armenians and
Muslims, we find it useful in translating the following report which belongs to
the English Consul of the mentioned city (Van):
"May 15, 1896
It is an honor for me to inform the Excellency that this region's condition is not
as desired. Within the last eight days Armenian rebels have attacked the Muslims
twice; in the first, 3 Turks were killed, 2 people were wounded; in the second, 2-3
people were killed. In both events the bodies were terribly torn apart. Also, an
assassination was organized to a rich Armenian who lived opposite the English
Embassy. Yesterday afternoon one of the most famous rebels was killed in a house in
the city. This murder must have been committed by Turks. For this rebel was one of
the raiders who came from Iran last fall. The band of rebels he was a member of has
done pillage here last year.
A police on duty was attacked in one of the streets in Van at midnight on June 2. An
officer and a private soldier were seriously injured(*). The Muslims were about to
lose their patience because of these incidents.
In any case the foolish and scoundrel Armenians (exact translation) are the guilty
ones. I have tried to explain to them that childish acts will never be useful. I
even pleaded but they didn't listen. And now I think that they don't have any hope
These are the exact answers given by the respected Williams. However the fact that
different statements were used in his report aroused doubts.
There were generally no proper explanations given in the press about this incident.
As a matter of fact the things written about Armenians are all full of lies.
To state once more is beneficent that it were Armenian villagers that had been
subjected to all negative results of the Armenian problem.
The number of massacre carried out in the cities is far
away from false statements of those who claimed that they had witnessed. The events
that occurred in cities equally influenced the Muslims. It is impossible not to be
wondered at the Armenian movements in cities which were taken as target by the
committees. These movements do not only represent attacks to Turks but also
represent the general dislike that reached its peak.
We visited to the to fortified place of the rebels on June 6, on Thursday,
accompanied by Dr. Regnault. I wondered at their methods of fortifying. Armenians
informed that they could resist for ten days waiting the additional supports that
would come from Iran. There were Americans, Russians and Bulgarians among their
leaders. The number of those who came from foreign countries were 12-15 and the
total number of rebels was almost 600.
Their leaders were carrying Russian weapons. They expressed that the weapons were
bought by means of gifted money of native Armenians. The weapons were introduced to
country by the way of Iran. Those who belonged to different committees were wearing
different uniforms. We point out all these details to show that rebels did not have
the aim of securing their wives arid children but they had to aim of preparing
rebellion on these grounds. We have documents showing the ways of killing of a lot
of Muslims who approached the fortified places of rebels unconsciously and who were
without weapon and without defense.
In last part of the report of B. Williams, it is stated that:
"It should be stated sadly that all of those incited by rebels are city youths.
A certain part of the Armenian district that was under our protection was saved by
the help of the Government. "
However, it was known by many persons that the majority of the rebels did not
abandon the gardens of Van, but they worn off the war dresses in order to wore the
dresses of bourgeoisie.
The oppression that was created by the pains which were deemed proper by committees
has caused to lose Armenians' heads who took refuge in the Consulates of Britain and
In fact the Government was in a very difficult position in relation to this matter.
It could not arrest even a partial number of the rebels. Escapes of them without any
punishment had shaken the respect of the Van's people to authorities. However the
attitude of the Government was an obstacle to the massacre of the Armenians in Van.
With the help of detailed explanation in this book, by comparing every kind of new
news under the title of 'Massacres in Van" in media, it become possible to have
a true idea about the events that occurred in different parts of Anatolia.
When the events which occurred in the first fifteen days of June in Van are
examined, it is seen that this area was completely in a pitiable condition. The
villages under the security guarantee of Turks had suffered less. For example, the
existence of an influential head of a tribe in Mukes county provided that there were
no event when all events in Van were carrying on. The defender of Armenians in
Adilcevaz was Hayadaranian Hüseyin Pasha and Norduz village was Haci Aga.
The raid of Ottoman Bank
In the noon on August 14,1896, 25 persons from Dashnaksutiun Committee raided
Ottoman Bank. Armenians who were not only equipped with the weapon of mavzer but
also with bombs had an extremely insolent suggestion to Europe: if Europe had not
made reforms quickly and permanently in the areas of Armenians inhabitance and had
not met their needs, they would have destroyed Ottoman Bank with persons in it.
Those who managed the Armenian problem insisted in every opportunity that they try
to develop all of the nation. The reason of bank raid was this.
It is not needed to describe in which conditions the Armenians of Istanbul were
after explosion of first bomb. Could there be any other result of Dashnaksutiun
rebellion? After a short interview with the chief translator of Russian Embassy in
Istanbul, rebels who had control over the Bank in a short time accepted to be
surrendered with the stipulation of reservation of their lives that are considered
as sacred by all Armenian Community.
Those of the rebels who were brought to Britain Consul Sir Edgar (Vincent's)'s yacht, were [put] on a French ship which would
sail to Marseille, the liberated city, a few days later. In this city they [were]
placed under police supervision in a prison. There must be no doubt for any body
that they were freed certain period later. Now, these people who have no pang of
conscience for their action that resulted in bloody events in Istanbul by killing
thousands of their fellow-men have walked in streets freely.
Hunchak band of rebels and others
A Hunchak band of rebels appeared on the days of 12-13 of September in 1896. This
band of rebels attacked on Van from Ovannis village. These rebels who destroyed all
places they had passed went up to the gardens in Armenian quarter and invaded a home
that was extremely appropriate for defense and prepared for war with Turk soldiers.
The following day when I passed by B. Williams, he told me that again tragic events
were expected from that day and added that the head of the band of rebels were
writers were extremely far from truth. Their basic aim was to invent oppressions and
to write them. Although they wanted to earn advantage and sympathy, they earned only
Weapon voices were heard without interruption. In
addition to this, Armenians collected in the garden of Russian Consulate as if there were
a command. After a short period, entrances of gardens were full of Armenian families and
their goods. In half hour, an officer who had been sent by Saadettin Pasha, coming next to
me stated that necessary prevention were taken to maintain public security and those
people who did not participate in events would not be victim by no means.
Besieging of the place with 35 rebels with eight company compelled not only Armenians
being without action but also Turks. When the night came, the house where Armenians had
taken up position were burnt to the ground after the rising of smoke. Different views were
disseminated about the future of those who had been besieged. It is reality, in any case,
that the rebels escaped. The following day gun-fires were heard. After the gun-fires had
stopped, Armenian songs were heard. While Armenians were drinking red wine of Van, they
had a good time, by firing at all sides. A thick smoke layer also risen in this evening as
happened in previous day to declare the end of collide. Armenians disappeared mysteriously
this time too.
Three days after, a travel were made with the participation of 400 Armenians on Igdir
road. Rebels was so disturbing and creating difficult condition people of the region that
it was unavoidable to migrate to Russia for all people who could succeed. The days of 15
August and 12 September were inauspicious for Armenians in the point of their aim.
By the daytime of 22 July in 1897, a group of the band of rebels passed the border through
a place near to Selmas where is at east of Baskale. They attacked the village in where the
chief of Merzegis (Seref Bey) were and hurt him, and also 150 persons in both races were
In same year, toward the ends of August, the band of rebels of Haramaz that was Russian
citizen appeared too. This band of rebels that consisted of 30 persons were caught before
any event appeared. After these events, Armenian problem reached the end in Van city. But
after a certain period later, it were again broken out in Bitlis and Mus cities
originating from Sasun.
In 1898 and 1899 years, a person's band of rebels, who is called Serop, became famous. The
Armenian is the only guerrilla chieftain who started action for nationalism. In the
region, his name became famous.
The Armenian movement in 1898 was restricted with Bitlis.
All actions that could be thought as oppressions narrated exaggeratedly in the brochure of
"For Armenia." Armenian writers were extremely far from truth. Their basic aim
was to invent oppressions and to write them. Although they wanted to earn advantage and
sympathy, they earned only disgust.
In the beginning of winter in 1901, Antranik band of
rebels appeared around Mus. On December 20, this group gained Surp Arakel Monestry (at the
east of Mus 5-6 verst* far from Mus). In the Surp Arakel monestry, there were priests and
villagers and even women and children other than the band of rebels of Antranik. Soldiers
besieged monestary which had been made a guard by this band of rebels. Defenders of the
monestary disappeared without tracking, because of the snowstorm in the night of December
In 1902... Since the problem of Macedonia came into being, the movement of Sasun were
postponed. The foreign pressure, originating from Macedonia problem on Ottoman Government
was seen sufficient not to be wanted appearance of new problems in the regions around
However Government prevented the spreading of the bands of rebels over the plain of Mus by
"Pro Armenia" newspaper which was the propaganda organ of Armenians pressed this
lines in 66th issue in 1903: "If Europe does not intervene officially, Armenian
rebels will not contend with the destruction of themselves as well as their community.
Wherever Armenians are in danger, in or other places, committee will come to aid of
In the 65th issue of the same newspaper: "If our brothers don't come to aid us on
time, we will be killed like sheep. We can't trust in the intervention of Europe. We must
trust in our own brothers to defend ourselves. When we use our breasts as shelter against
enemy's shells, we hope that our brothers and sisters will come to aid of us."
From all these, it is understood that it was planned by the leaders of Armenian movement
to invent an Armenian myth and to force Europe to solve both problem (Armenia and
Macedonia problem) together in accordance with the appearance of Macedonia problem.
Here is the message of the famous leader of Macedonia rebels, Sarafoff, for Armenians, in
mentioned newspaper's 78th issue:
"Armenian brothers! We are sure that our brotherhood will strengthen by the coming
of autumn. Europe that guaranteed the respect for humanity in Turkey by having signature
under 3rd and 6th paragraph of Berlin Agreement will see our common protest and have to
make serious attempts for this problem. Slavery under which these two nations (Bulgarians
and Armenians) have been for centuries will be broken in short time and the brothers of
two sides who are under pressure will be free entirely. long live Armenia, long live
The consequence of Armenian rebel activities
The results have been tragic in relation to their condition. Their condition have
considerably become worse in spite of becoming better. It was so not only in Turkey but
also in Caucasia. Armenian notables understood that following the way of giving the idea
of a liberal regime to Armenians by Armenian rebels caused the disaster of their
fellow-men and waited for coming to an end of rebels action in sadness.
The Greeks of Turkish citizenship have been living in happiness and harmony in these
settlements and Ottoman Government never think an application of military or police
prevention for them. However, they have made their national propaganda in secrecy. They
have never caused any trouble and paid their tax regularly.
They want to express that by behaving in this manner: Collect tax how much you want, to
leave us alone entirely in this situation in which we are...
Catholic Armenians have always seen themselves as a variant · religious community.
Already, Catholic sect is not appropriate for national propaganda. In this respect, the
senses of nationality could have not developed in Catholic Armenians.
Turks do not constitute only Muslim people but also constitute most important component in
Anatolia. They never deserve negative imputation which Russian and European press always
try to make suitable them.
Liberty which Eastern Christians have tried to obtain has been paid with life by both
Muslims and Christians. The mistake of rebellions which occurred in east and sometimes
alarmed Europe has been attributed always to Turks and partly to Ottoman Government. The
subject to see Ottoman Government as guilty or innocent is altered according to the
politics which is followed by Europe. But is there a possibility to procure acceptance to
Europe the reality that this kind of rebellions is not the result of restraint of
government but the result of excessive independent attitude which has been given by
government about subject of nationality and religion?
Turks have never interfered the religious and national problems of nation which was
related to their sovereignty. Christian schools have not been exposed to any kind of
control. This type of administration has led to excessive development of religious and
national senses of nation which was in the rule of them. These ideas of nationality which
developed in some specific level have led willingly or unwillingly to rebellion.
At whatever cost, the idea bringing out confusion for Western interference has never
abandoned the intellects of Turkian Christians. These ideas of them are fixation and ît
is true according to them: because there is the situation of Greeks, Rumanians, Serbians
and Bulgarians in front of their eyes.
The men encouraging these rebellions try to emerge rebellions as much as they try to show
Turks as assassins of Christians. Only Turks know that the rebellions of Christian rebels
are made to fall themselves in hopelessness.
The main reasons which can be known merely by intelligent memory and which unconsciously
lead to manipulation of inauspicious acts, also depend on pictures which are prepared and
deliberately distributed to public.
Like that, by these kinds of propaganda, the idea of "the barbaric of Turks and
generally Muslim" has been scattered. It has been tried to be imposed to minds of
pure Christians the idea that after Turks have rested about 5-10 years, all of them stand
up angrily and in spite of becoming no reason in reality, they attack Christians because
of merely believing that the necessity of assassination of Christians in where exist.
The understanding of all Orient Christians consists of this idea. If Turks were in
consensus with mentality of correspondents of newspapers and if the situation of Anatolian
Christians was like they try to show, does and Christian stay as living in Turkey until
(Holdwater break: I hope you're following the poor translation, ladies and gentlemen! The
point made above is important enough that I'll provide a paraphrasing: Basically, what
General Mayewski is describing here is a basic principle that Armenians and other
Turcophobes are still making good use of today. The "Terrible Turk" brainwashing
is so ingrained, Westerners believe Turks make it their business to slaughter Christians.
However, if this propaganda were true, how could any Christian have remained alive within
the Ottoman Empire?)
In spite of appearance of thousands of Armenians in poverty, "the barbaric of
Turk" which is persistently mentioned has not been met in nowhere. In reality such a
barbaric of Turk is not existent, this is a political tale which has been scientifically
If it is necessary to say reality like becoming it needs to contest in East the being barbaric
is not Muslims, on the contrary, being barbaric is Christians. The persons who having made
all wickednesses of east and then charge unprotected Muslims with these wickednesses are
entirely Armenians. The problem which is necessary to be paid attention in Turkey is
the period of security which has been long time dominant rather than rebellions which have
sometimes occurred. In such a country in which pressure, discomfort, and continuous
rebellion break out inevitably only by taking away rebels from their places has hindered
any types of confusion and even has put an end to confusion. It has turned into a
situation that it can be thought that as if Armenian rebellion never occurred.
In 1895-1896, what situation were the provinces of Trabzon and Sivas in, and what
situation have they been in a few years? Peace and calm substituted the excessively bloody
This is reason: between 1900 and 1903 years
when peace and calm prevailed these regions were really attractive. In Caucasus
which is neighbor to Trabzon, in spite of every kind of pressure which was
reinforced with heavy military service persons have been killed and assassinated in
broad daylight. When same events have occurred almost every day, on the contrary, in
Trabzon that have 30-40 gendarmes, security has been lasting entirely. This
situation is the most explicit evidence which explain instance moral of the
obedience of public to administration and value of Ottoman Administration. This
public has been formed so that Turk Government can't entirely rely on it even in
most difficult times.
Karciganian Musa Bey is known by everyone. Although Kuli Han Bey, Geva[j]ian Teli
Bey, Çatakian Sakir Aga and others are not compared with tribe chiefs, they are
known as famous persons in native tribes. During Armenian rebellions these persons
have made important tasks. Armenians have been protected and their needs have been
provided in terms of power of some of these persons. For instance Musa Bey, Kuli Han
Bey with their all persons have run to defend and help Armenians. Armenian villages
which take refuge to these persons and tribes have been protected against all kinds
of danger. Although unprotected neighbor village was destroyed, anyone have not
annoyed these villages.
Relations between Turks and Armenians
The claim of authors that insist in an unexceptional way that Turks try to devastate
Armenians is entirely improper. If it was so, any other community from themselves
could not live among Turks and other tribes which live with them must have been in
need of bread crumb or it would be necessary to accept slavery or to migrate to
other places totally. Whereas it is not possible to see any one of these situations.
On the contrary everyone know thoroughly eastern provinces accept that in these
regions, Christian villages are richer and more prosperous than Turk villages.
The lives of Christian villages which are be able to work more principle of Armenian
public are more easy in comparison with Turk villages. If Turks were thief and
brigand like claims of Europeans, Armenians have not had their prosperous lives
which continued until 1896. In this respect discomforts which are claimed that
Armenians became exposed to until 1895 are nothing apart from a myth which is
invented by exaggeration. In reality, the situation of Armenians in Turkey is not
worse than the situation of other Armenians in other countries.
The events which Armenians have outcried as pillage and massacre have occurred on a
large scale in Caucasus. The problem of abduction of animal herds is nothing apart
from herd larceny which is made often in everywhere of Russia. If we look at the
security of life and commodity, we see that in everywhere which are in domination of
Ottoman Government, those are protected better than those being in Elisabetopol
In 1895 and 1896 years, Turks were doubtless in situation of enemy of Armenians. But
this is not to mean that there is a permanent enmity between two communities. This
incitement was nothing apart from a comedy which Armenian rebels imagined and
It has been seen that tribe chiefs who have been accused with brigandage and robbery
for many years protect indigent Armenians even during most critical times. There is
no any more powerful evidence then this events to show that Armenians have lived
friendly with Turks who have been qualified by them as brigandage bandit.
In 1897 year, when passing Adilcevaz county, it was required [for] us to stay for
one night in Aren where [there] was an Armenian village on the east side of lake
that is called by same name with Adilcevaz village. Man who had made guidance to us
during our travelling came and told that steward (notable of village) and priest
want to tell their some wish us. Since we did not want to enterprise formally, we
charged translator to be informed about issue and to inform us. Problem was that:
during Van events when Haydaranian Emin Pasha would pillage in Armenian villages of
Adilcevaz county, about thirty village wanted help of Hüseyin Pasha who was also a
Haydaranian A[g?]a; he also assigned the protection of these villages to Sultan Bey,
and gave 69 horsemen in Sultan Bey's company from himself tribe. But, when only four
villages of these thirty villages had been damaged because of not arriving in time,
others did not be exposed to any damage.
At present, Hüseyin Pasha is wanted to take away; even some consuls tried rather to
provide it. Whereas it is necessary to reward him in any way rather than to take
away. If he deserted the regions, many villages inhabited by Armenians will remain
In this situation, the entreaties of Armenians are to consist of hindering this
change of place as becoming possible.
The next day, villagers came personally to repeat wishes and they wanted to be
accepted their request again. ·
In October 16,1898 in Sakince village of Norduz ward (related to Çatak) when having
passed night, village head man who is a man showed respect and some notables visited
After explaining that there would not be any Armenian villages by reason of gradual
migration, they mentioned painful memoirs in 1895-1896 years and complained about
behaviors of persons who were related to neighbor Fidanli tribe and if chief of
Fidanli tribe Haci Aga came from Musul vicinity to Norduz ward in this summer, they
added that anyone of Armenian will not be alive in this vicinity:
"..When the events of 1896 Van began to spread in environment, we began to look
for way to escape from Fidanli tribe; since our protector Hacz Aga (from Musul) did
not come to grasslands we decided to go to place where he was in to take refuge him.
As a convoy with 700 men, after two days travel, we meet with his going caravan, in
third day we became guest of Hacz Aga. During this time we stayed in tent and did
not pay any price. Then he had us accompanied with sufficient number his servants.
So we succeeded to reap our harvest. "
These are realities which are heard from their mouth of themselves of Armenians.
Whereas Haci Aga is one of the most famous brigand in Musul and Bitlis environments.
In 1896, during events which occurred in Van according to rumor among villagers,
Musa Bey by his behaviors became a model person and a large Armenian group took
refuge him. Even there were two Armenian sisters who were originally from
Austria-Hungary, when. events had become quiet, they were taken under protection of
Russian consulate by Russian ambassador's command.
All Russian consuls have stated that it is not very easy to protect all men who are
citizen of Russia. ·
The situation of Russian citizens who were in Turkey were only seen as a device to
suppress jobberies, intrigues end every kind of sinister jobs. These two sisters
passing from Istanbul came their village with their 2-3000 Liras and begun to make
usury. Since debtors could not pay up by reason of impossibility, Russian consulate
was charged with collection of debts. The collection of debts continued long time in
return for receipt. Sisters expressed that they lent 15 liras to Musa Bey without
sign and witness, when they were near Musa Bey. Just the same, during this giving
loan, there were not any witness like they said.
Is it possible to warn from a man who had personality like Musa Bey to money which
was lent without witness and promissory note and to become right? Musa Bey was
invited to consulate by reason of application which was made by these two persons to
Van's collector of tax, and in meeting between him and older sister, the problem of
debt was talked, and he accepted that he was debtor, so he instantly admitted to
sign a receipt because of not having enough money on himself but he wanted to be
registered on translator's name of consulate rather than her name. After two weeks,
he sent someone to get receipt, and to given money.
Those were little events which occurred between this 'brigands" and Armenians.
It is not right to decide that Turks bore a grudge and enmity against Armenians
in 1895-1896 years, only by looking at external aspect of problems. In an
environment in where habit of blood feud was widespread even among persons who
believe same religion, in such community, how would revenge been taken from
Armenians, who had shed blood of Muslims?
It is necessary to think about how much unmoral acts which were made on corpses of
killed Muslims by Armenians (for example, like cutting [out some of] their organs
and putting these organs [in] their mouths) incite the anger and revenge.
In 1895, when we came to Musul, relations between Turks and Armenians were very
well. These two communities have friendly lived in many settlement areas of Turkey.
In the end of 1895 these relations suddenly took a various from. Getting provoke
Turks against Armenians who were incited by activities of comitadjis begun to show
its influences. However, relations between Armenians and Turks have improved and
took old aspect after Armenians drove out comitadjis in 1897. Armenian events which
cause difficulties for Ottoman Government have continued to occur in every places
where there were rebels.
Henceforth, the men who manage Armenian events will be even partially obliged to
obtain support of Turks, this is a side of Armenian problem which does not
sufficiently get clearness.
Whew! If you managed this
far, you deserve a lot of credit... Yes, a lot of the above was not the easiest to grasp.
However, the "gist" of what was being said is pretty clear. It is the very
thesis of what pro-Armenians like to describe as "Turkish propaganda"... that
is, relations between Turks and Armenians were pretty good until the fanatical leaders
held sway; they committed massacres in order to get the Europeans to intervene. If these
terrorists had behaved themselves, there would have been no "genocide" in 1915.
So we can clearly see, in
this case at least, what can be substituted in place of "Turkish propaganda" is
Wherever the originals of
Mayewski's writings are, it is high time to do an "official" translation. We can
get an excellent idea of how inefficient the Turks are, when it comes to their own
"propaganda." When you release an important document such as this, you had
better make sure you do an immaculate job.
Three cheers for General
Mayewski for being such a man of integrity. By spelling out the truth, he was actually
going against the policy of his own government. The Tsar, as the tsars that preceded him,
was hungrily eyeing the rich real estate of the ailing Ottoman Empire, and his purpose
would have been better served to maintain the impression that the Ottoman system was
oppressive and cruel.
Vahakn Dadrian, in his
eternal drive to try and discredit the evidence that flies in the face of his
"cause," has attempted his usual smoke and mirrors act to cast doubt on the
legitimacy of Mayewski. Basically, the prosecutor tells us that the translation was not
faithfully rendered. I disagree: this particular translation was HORRIBLY rendered, but
you can see the limited capabilities of whomever tried his or her hand at this struggled
to match the words as perfectly as possible, even if the result was sometimes
gobbledy-gooky. Dadrian is actually criticizing not the Turkish-to-English translation of
what was above, but the original Russian-to-Turkish translation. Even in that case, it is
obvious the translator wouldn't have sat down and rewritten everything. The essence of
Mayewski's message is plain to see, and there could not have been any essential
Here's another page of
Mayewski's thoughts, and Dadrian's protest:
General Mayewski Examines Armenian Events, Politically