Tall Armenian Tale


The Other Side of the Falsified Genocide


  Armenian Newspaper Coverage — 1800s  
First Page


Major Players
Links & Misc.



Mahmut Ozan
Edward Tashji
Sam Weems

 The bigoted American and Western press naturally depicted "The Armenian Question" almost entirely from the perspective of Armenian propaganda. But even with some of these articles, the inconsistencies of the massacre tales slipped through; sometimes the newspapers even released accounts of the Armenians' belligerence (frequently couched in terms such as "self-defense," but in reality exposing the lie that there was no Armenian rebellion).

This page will feature some of these accounts, as well as others of interest, taking place during the late 1800s.

Many thanks to Gokalp.


)   War Considered Imminent
2)   Armenian Troubles
Hissed by the Audience
4)   Armenian Uprising
5)   Most Diabolical
Americans in Armenia
7)   Is the Sultan Obstinate?
8)   Outrages in Armenia
9)   Armenians in Revolt
10) The Armenian Tangle
11) It was Despair
12) Wily Turks Claim Armenians are Responsible for Disorders
13) Snubs Great Britain
14) Ready to Submit
15) Terrell Confirms the Massacres
16) 600 Armenians Arrested
Armenians To Be Executed
18) Villages Burned
19) Armenian Outrages
20) Constantinople Riots
21) Armenian Rioters in Constantinople Shed Much Blood
22) To Try Turkish Rioters
23) Turkish Banks Reopened
23b) Armenian Societies Swear to Ruin the Porte
24) French Ambassador Warns Sultan / Armenian Immigration
25) Threats of the Armenians
26) Armenian Banker May Lose Head / Alliance vs. Turkey
27) Armenian Revolutionists
28) Crafty Greece Only Waiting for the Right Moment
29) Germans Aiding Turks
30) Armed Movement Against the Sultan
31) Armenian Revolutionists Defend Recent Bomb-Throwing
32) Sentenced to Death
33) The Turk No Religious Persecutor
34) Suspend... severe and harsh judgment of the (Turks)
35) Turkish Light on Massacres

  War Considered Imminent


Daily Kennebee Journal?, April [5], 1878

War Considered Imminent

Ignatieff’s View of His Mission to Vienna

Gortachakoff Preparing a Reply to England


An Army Preparing to March Against British India.

The Russian Defiance Toward England.


ST. PETERSBURG, April .In an interview with Gen Ignatieff yesterday, he stated he was satisfied with the result of his mission to Vienna, inasmuch as it enables Russia to see more clearly what is necessary to be done.

Gortachakoff is engaged preparing a diplomatic note in reply to Salisbury s circular, which will have a two fold object. It will satisfy Andrassy and will conclude an ultimatum for England. This reply is expected from hour to hour, and much curiosity is manifested to ascertain its actual contents. It is expected it will precipitate a genuine crisis, and force England to declare distinctly what she wants.

Gen. Ignatieff is less hopeful than ever of Congress meeting, and even if it should meet it will not settle anything satisfactorily. Considering everything. Ignatieff thinks Congress would only lead to war.

There are conflicting interests at stake in this Eastern question, which can only be settled by war, and no Congress could reconcile them.

Gortachakoff appeared to have made up his mind for war, and in fact to prefer it as a means of arriving at a definite solution of the difference. He is therefore shaping his diplomacy with a view to that end, and events will be influenced in such way as to precipitate a struggle, under circumstances most favorable to Russia. Everything here points to war, and the public mind is fully prepared for it.

Tchernaieff has been appointed to the command of a special corps of eclaireurs destined to penetrate rapidly to the heart of Central Asia, in countries where the Russian armies have already been on several expeditions. This special corps will be composed of Cossacks und horse artillery, and be augmented on the march by such recruits as the general commander may see fit to take.

Armenian volunteers for such work as the column would have to undertake, are to be found among the tribes of Central Asia, and their general will have no difficulty in enlisting their services.

General Tchernaieff is an old campaigner in Central Asia, and will act with the greatest celerity of movement. He will adopt the tactics followed by Gourko after the passage of the Danube. As he is familiar with the ground and has great experience in dealing with the Asiatics, it is considered here that no better selection could have been made. It is not known what the strength of his command will be, but it is asserted the greatest care has been taken in selecting men and subordinate chiefs.

There is now no doubt that the objective point of his expedition is British India.

So certain do the authorities at St. Petersburg feel of a war with England, that preparations have been thus early begun, so that no time may be lost after hostilities commence.

LONDON, April 5. A St. Petersburg despatch says the Journal De St. Petersburg, official organ of the government, has adopted a defiant and war- like tone in its article to-day respecting Salisbury's circular.

Officials of the English admiralty have gone to Belfast to superintend the equipment of numerous private steamers, to be used as cruisers in case of war.

The military situation ia beginning to attract attention. The Servian occupation of Bulgaria as far as Plevna, is believed to be intended to cover the Russian line of communication and relieve the Russian troops, who will be concentrated south of the Balkans.

The Russian troops lately at Sofia and north of Adrianople, are moving toward tbe south-east, perhaps to strengthen the army of Grand Duke Nicholas, or it may be the intention to abandon the lines of land communications and rely almost exclusively for the conveyance of reserves and supplies on the marine transports over the Black Sea, in consequence of the attacks of the Roumanians.

From the latter point of view it is very natural to infer the Russians will do everything possible to keep the British fleet out of the Black Sea, though it is not believed here that even occupation of the northern shore of the Bosphorus by tbe Russians would prevent Admiral Hornby from forcing a passage.

On the peninsuIa of Gallipoli, or the neighboring mainland, in front of the position of Bulair, are probably about 50,000 Russians, while at Salonica and on the lines of communication there may be scattered some 50,000 more.

The war office at St. Petersburg is stated to be dissatisfied with the condition of the muster rolls, and is making strenuous exertions to hurry up the reserves. All regiments stationed in the capital were three days ago inspected by the Emperor, probably previous to their departure to the front. Some Russian divisions are now on the road to Buyukdere, and 30,000 troops are collected within easy striking distance. Between these and Buyukdere are some Turkish brigades, which could probably hold the place till assistance arrived, if energetically employed and loyally commanded, in co operation with the [British], but they must in time be overwhelmed, for the Russians, even allowing for all deductions, should still muster at least 75,000 combatants in front of Constantinople.

Armenian Troubles


Reno Evening Gazette, August 12, 1890; the same article was in The Galveston Daily News, August 13, 1890, entitled ARMENIAN TROUBLES. The ending line was: "The governor of Erzeroum has ordered the expulsion of fifty Armenians suspected of having promoted the recent disturbances."


The Turks Alarmed.

(By Cable and Associated Press)
CONSTANTINOPLE, Aug. 12.— Further conflicts have occurred between the Turks and Armenians in Alashgerd district. It is reported that a band of young Russo-Armenian volunteers, mounted and well armed, have appeared at Erzeroum and are recruiting adherents fast. The report caused a panic among the Turkish authorities.

Hissed by the Audience


Sandusky Register, Feb. 22, 1895

Hissed by the Audience.

CHICAGO, Feb. 21.— Gen. Lew Wallace was openly hissed several times in Central music hall tonight during his lecture on "Turkey and the Turks." A large number of Armenians were in the audience, expecting Gen. Wallace would allude to the Armenian atrocities. He did so. Gen. Wallace praised the personal peculiarities of the Turks as a people, and asked the people of America to suspend judgment in the stories of the massacre by the Turks and Kurds until the report of the international commission is received. He also praised the Armenians as brave and peaceful people. Later in the evening he spoke several times in praise of the Turks and every time hisses came from the audience.

Holdwater: Did you also feel the need to double-check the date, to see whether the year was not 1995? Incredible.

Armenian Uprising


The Delphos Daily Herald, May 30, 1895


Turkey Endeavoring to Prevent It if Possible.


Communication Stopped Between the Leaders in Persia and Their Agents in Armenia — Caravans Seized by Turkish Officials. The lives of the Christian People Are in Greater Peril Now Than Ever.

DJULFA, Russia, May 80.— Copyrighted, 1895,by the Associated Press.—The special correspondent of the Associated Press who is investigating the situation in Armenia has furnished the following correspondence:

"The Turkish government is taking prompt measures to prevent the uprising of the Armenian revolutionists next month. All roads leading from Persia to Van have been closed by order of the Turkish government, the intention being to shut off communication between the revolutionary leaders in Persia and their agents in Armenia. The last caravan that tried to get through to Van was seized by Turkish officials.

The seizure of the caravan to Van has caused no end of consternation to the Armenian revolutionists in Persia, as this action seriously interferes with some of their important arrangements. However, they assure me that other roads through tho mountains will be found and that the work will go steadily forward.

"Within the past week the Turkish consul at Sautch-Balak, in Persia, tried to cross over into Turkey with an armed escort of 12 men, but he was turned back by the Kurds, who held possession of all the roads. At the same time the Turkish officials in the towns near the border were chased out of the country by the Kurds. They took refuge in Ravenduz, where they are now. The Kurds have warned them not to return. The Armenians hope that the Kurds and Turks will get into a fight and exterminate each other.

"A reasonable explanation for this activity of the Kurds may be found in a letter from Sheik Abdel-Kadr, recently written to his brother in the mountains of Kuristan.[sic] Abdel Kadr announces that the sultan had appointed him to command the Hamidieh regiment of a regular Kurdish cavalry, together with a force of regular Turkish troops, and that there was to be a great war, during which he and his troops were to capture the Russian city of Kars.

"Many well informed persons in western Persia believe that Asia Minor is on the verge of a great religious war which the Sultan of Turkey is fostering in order to retain his prestige among the Mohammedans, many of whom have been for some time grumbling at him for his lukewarmness in the cause of their religion, and threatening to deprive him ot his caliphate.

"As eight months have passed since the Sassoun and Moosh massacres and nothing has been done in consequence by the Turkish government, the moslems [sic] of Persia are beginning to believe that nothing will be done, and that Europe's protests count for nothing. As a result the Persians are beginning to talk... of having a massacre of Christians on their account. I have been frankly told in Persia that if nothing else is done to punish the Turks for the Sassoun affair, the zealous moslems [sic] of Persia will seek to win the favor of their god by scourging and driving out the Christians. Were it not for the strong hand of the Persian government and the good will and protection of the shah, the Christian population would be murdered within a week.

"My information is to the effect that Bitlis is on the brink of a massacre and that trouble may be looked for at any moment. This news, from a different source, is of the same character as the news which I received last week announcing that the Christians at Van were within an inch of a massacre.

"The situation in Armenia has grown no better for the presence of the commission of inquiry; as a matter of fact, it has grown worse, and the Christian population in eastern Turkey is at the present moment in greater peril than it was the week before the Sassoun massacre. Not only that, but the peril to Christian people has spread eastward into Persia. Near Onronmia, a few days ago, the village of Baloolan was attacked by 400 Kurds, and several men were killed.

"The village of Balooulan is now deserted by all its inhabitants except a few armed men, who are guarding the empty houses. Another attack is looked for daily, as the Kurds have sent word that they mean to remove Baloolan from the face of nature in revenge for the death of one of their men. There is no doubt whatever that they will carry out their threat."'

Holdwater: The uncommon article demonstrating the Kurds were at odds with the Turks, instead of acting as a tag team and making life hell on earth for Armenians.

Most Diabolical


Newark Daily Advocate, July 15, 1895


The Massacre of the Armenians at Sassoun by Kurds


Is Reform Which Has as Its Fundamental Principle the Giving to European Powers Absolute Control of That Unfortunate Country — Five Hundred Young Armenians Swear to Sacrifice Themselves to Attract the Attention of England to the Desperateness of the Situation, Which Was Never In a More Critical Condition.

From the Special Correspondent of the Associated Press.
VAN, Armenia, May 24.—The Sassonn massacre, it would appear, was one of the most carefully planned outrages in history. The evidence of this is circumstantial only, but it is alleged to be none the less conclusive.

During the months of June, July and August preceding the Sassoun massacre the Kurdish chiefs in the country surrounding the Sassoun region, and particularly the districts in the southward and southwestward, were apparently unusually busy in gathering up the scattered warriors of their tribes for an invasion of the Sassoun region.

In July and August enormous quantities of petroleum were shipped from Erzeroum to Moush. This petroleum came originally from Russia to Erzeroum, and so great was the quantity brought over the mountain roads that it was a subject of remark to very many persons. For a time it looked as though nothing went over the roads between Erzeroum and Moush but petroleum. It is a fact that Moush does not use a great quantity of petroleum herself, nor do her merchants sell much of it to the surrounding country. In the villages candles of sheep fat oil are used for lights.

No longer a Mystery.

The mystery was a mystery no longer after the Sassoun massacre, for that petroleum was used to burn the houses of the Sassoun villages and to cremate the bodies of the wretched villagers who fell victims to the awful butchery. ln burning the houses the petroleum was thrown upon the woodwork in generous quantities and set on fire, with the result that everything that could burn went up in smoke. In cremating the dead the bodies were, in many cases, placed between layers of wood and built up into a sort of funeral pile. The entire mass was then saturated with petroleum and set on fire. It is charged that living men were cremated in the same way. But this was a merciful way of putting the unfortunate creatures death in comparison with the torturing inflicted upon many others.

The Massing of Troops

near the Sassoun region, and particularly at Moush, was carried on for some time before the beginning of the massacre in order that everything might be in readiness, according to the program said to have been carefully made out at Constantinople. Several weeks after the Sassoun massacre it is claimed orders were sent from the palace at Constantinople for a massacre of the inhabitants of Modikan, a district lying to the south and southeast of Sassoun, but when it was seen that an investigation of the massacre at Sassoun was inevitable the order, it is said, was recalled and Modikan was not molested except in the ordinary course of the persecution general in all parts of Armenia.

Willing to Be Sacrificed.

In the city of Van, at this moment, there are 500 young men sworn to give themselves as a sacrifice to Turkish butchery in the hope that the attention of England may be more strongly called to the desperate situation of their people.

The Armenians can not accept any scheme of reform which does not have for its fundamental principles the absolute control of the European powers. Unless Europe controls the reforms there will be a massacre of 20,000 Christians in the city of Van within three months. The Armenians themselves will bring this about rather than be cast adrift by their fellow Christians of the west.

Can Not Be Told.

There is no language quite adequate to a description of the real condition of Armenia at present. Men are beaten robbed and murdered, and women are ravished by Kurds and Turkish soldiers Woe and want and despair and death stalk abroad in this beautiful laud that was once a part of the garden of Eden. The inhabitants of Van are living on the brink of a massacre from day to day.

By the transfer from Van to Constantinople of the advance guard of the Armenian revolutionary movement, captured in the village of Tchiboukla on May 19, the Turkish government has taken a decisive step toward quieting public excitement in the eastern part of the empire.

The governor of Van, Bahri Pasha, has, during the week, added several interesting facts to the alleged confession of Harry Williams, the leader of the captured band. According to the governor, Williams has confessed that the revolutionary party, which sent him to begin the revolution, has 3,000 rifles in Trieste, Austria, which will be shipped lo Armenia for the use of the patriots at the earliest opportunity.

Not a British Subject.

An interesting incident of Williams' confession, as made public by Bahri, is the fact that he is not a British subject at all, but is a native of the Caucuses region of Russia, and, strangely enough, of the very district in which Bahri himself was born.

Leaving out of consideration entirely the second revolutionary band across the Persia border it is an undeniable facf that the Armenian situation was [LINE CUT SHORT]

Our correspondent yesterday met the representative of a fourth revolutionary party which has agents in Russia, England and America. Their headquarters seem to be in America, where a party newspaper is published and revolutionary funds collected. This agent is a Russian-Armenian and he holds strong views on the situation. The fourth revolutionary party has no guns in Armenia, nor does the agent say that h has any arms hidden in the mountains. The party's principles, however, are of the most radical and advanced sort.

Holdwater: Is not the petroleum poppycock the biggest load of sh...aving cream in the annals of Armenian inventiveness? At least the journalist was responsible enough to include the sort of disclaimer, "The evidence of this is circumstantial only, but it is alleged to be none the less conclusive. " (A more realistic look at Sasun.) Also, don't you love the obligatory "Final Solution" claim, that the massacres were committed "according to the program said to have been carefully made out at Constantinople"? The Armenians don't lose a trick, secure in the knowledge that journalists would publish whatever they would say.

What is much more believable are the "most diabolical" plans of the Armenian terrorists, from planning to import massive quantities of arms into the Ottoman Empire, to the propaganda machinery already established in the USA. (The ending line is steeped in truth, "The party's principles, however, are of the most radical and advanced sort.") And they had far from hit their stride, regarding their evil work, this being only 1895.

ADDENDUM, 1-07: Insight on "Harry Williams," from The Armenian Rebellion at Van, McCarthy, 2006, p. 62:

In 1887, Ottoman forces captured fourteen men carrying revolutionary propaganda as they crossed the Iranian border — one was a Russian subject, twelve were Ottoman subjects, and one had a British passport under the name of "Harry Williams." [51] "Williams" turned out to be a Hunchak party regular, Haroutun Ohandjian, who had lived in London and obtained a passport using false credentials. [52].

[51]: FO 195/1887, Hallward Telegram to Currie, July 25, 1887. [52]: FO 424/183, Home Office to Foreign Office, London, July 6, 1895. Scotland Yard found that, while in London, Ohandjian had been living with Avedis Nazarbekian, the editor of the Hunchak newspaper, Huntchak.

Americans in Armenia


The Syracuse Standard, Aug.16,1895

Americans in Armenia

Washington, Aug. 15.— The state department has received a report from Minister Terrell at Constantinople stating that a naturalized American citizen who was a student at the American college at Marsovan, Armenia, had been arrested by the Turkish officials for alleged complicity in the murder of an Armenian Christian. The minister stated that he had instructed Mr. Jewell, the United Slates consul there, to demand the release of Ihe prisoner, whose name was not given. If he had been imprisoned on mere suspicion or because his acquirement of American citizenshlp was construed as an offense, Mr. Terrell said In his dispatch that the present Marsovan troubles arose from notices sent [16] persons there that they would be killed unless they co-operated with the Armenian revolutionists. Two of these were President Tracy and Prof. Riggs of Marsovan college, both Americans. Two of the [16] have been assassinated. At Mr. Terrell's request a Turkish guard was furnished the Americans.

Holdwater: It's one thing for the morally bankrupt Dashnaks and Hunchaks to have targeted fellow Armenians to do their bidding, otherwise they would be killed. But it's almost sacrilegious for them to have used such evil tactics on the Armenians' greatest friends, the missionaries.

Is the Sultan Obstinate?


NY Times, Aug. 25, 1895


The refusal of the Sultan to accept general European superintendence of the reforms In Asiatic Turkey may be obstinacy or merely another move on the chessboard of Eastern European politics. His assertion that it will endanger the integrity and independence of his empire Is plausible and has even more than a shadow of truth. The difficulty is that refusal is more dangerous than acceptance. The longer actual reform Is delayed, the more difficult it becomes. From every part of the empire comes news of increasing desperation among the people. In the region of Moosh there Is already famine; on the plains of Erzeroum the harvest is good, but the farmers dare not gather it for fear of the Kurds; In Northern Mesopotamia the Christians are fleeing from their villages, and even the Kurdish nomads have to ask for Government protection in going to their mountain pasturages; In Central Asia Minor the Armenian revolutionists are again creating disturbances, having murdered two prominent Armenians for no other reason than a desire to create a disturbance and attract the notice of foreign powers* and Bulgarian brigands have attacked one of the few remaining Turkish towns in the province of Adrianople. Everywhere, from Albania to Bagdad, uncertainty, anxiety, and distress have resulted in such tension that there is constant apprehension lest the people of all classes in sheer desperation arise en masse and strike at anything within reach, even though the only and the immediate result be their own destruction. In such circumstances to talk about the integrity and independence of the empire is the sheerest folly, unless there be some unseen influence at work upon which the Sublime Porte relies in the pursuance of a policy of constantly putting off any decision of any kind. That there is some such influence at work is undoubtedly true. It may be Russia who Is not quite ready to see the means on which she has so often relied to quiet home troubles set aside. It may be that Austria, with her eye on the Aegean, feels that the time is not yet ripe for her plans. It may be that France Is waiting to see how the Madagascar experiment Is going to develop before she commits herself to a plan which would mean the firmer establishment of England's hold on Egypt. It may be none of these, but simply the Turk's invariable reliance on Kismet, the chance that something may turn up to put off the evil day. The scarcely veiled threat In the Queen's speech, following so soon Mr. Gladstone's fearful arraignment of Turkish falsehood and treachery, and the very plain talk of Lord Salisbury on the reassembling of Parliament ought to mean something. At no previous time in the history of Turkey has the internal condition been as bad as It is to-day, and at no time has the consensus of the civilized world been so strong that the Sultan must either improve or be put out of Europe, if not out of his throne. The quicker he sees this and acts accordingly, the better it will be for him. He will find that the policy of trusting to the selfish interests of the European powers to neutralize each other and protect himself has its limitations, and will soon be a policy of self-destruction.

Outrages in Armenia


Marion Daily Star, Sept.10, 1895


Towns Sacked and the Inhabitants Foully Treated

LONDON, Sept 10 —A dispatch to The Daily News from Kars Armenia says that the entire district of [Kem?iks] is surrounded by Turkish troops dispatched by Zekki Pasha under the plea of arresting Armenian revolutionaries. The villages of Carni Tortan Horopont and Marign are reported to have been completely sacked and the population, ingregating 5000 people, were foully treated. The men were tortured and the women and children were ravished. The excitement and alarm are universal.

Authentic information from [Monach] is to the effect that an anti Christian society of Turkish officials has been formed there and at Bitha with the avowed intention to slaughter the Christians in the event of the acceptance by the porte of the scheme of reforms presented by the powers. It is declared that Consul Hampson is to be the first victim.

Armenians in Revolt


Centralia Enterprise and Tribune, Nov. 2, 1895


Twenty-six Thousand In the Zeitoun Mountains Defy the Sultan

Constantinople, Oct. 30.— The most alarming news yet received from Armenia was made public here today. It is said that the situation is so grave that in the Zeitoun mountains and in that district there are 26,000 Armenians In revolt against the rule of the Sultan. The Turkish government, in view of the gravity of this outbreak, has decided to call out the army reserves.

Washington, D. C., Oct. 30 — United States Minister Terrell has cabled to the state department a practical confirmation of the press reports of the recent Armenian massacres. He has given formal warning to the Porte, by direction of Secretary Olney, that Turkey will be held responsible for the safety and security of all American missionaries in that country.

The Armenian Tangle


The Daily Transcript, November 4, 1895


Much-Talked-of Reform Has Failed to Materialize as Yet.

Turkey's Move In the Matter Came Too Late.

Disturbances In Various Parts of the Empire Have In No Wise Abated.

LONDON, Nov. 4.— A dispatch from Constantinople says that the sultan has summoned Tewflk Pasha from Berlin to discuss the Armenian question.

The papers this morning are full of Turkish troubles, and have columns of special correspondence from Constantinople. The Daily News (Liberal) in an editorial complains of the want of agreement among the powers as encouraging the sultan to withhold the imperial order enforcing the Armenian reforms. It is most regrettable, The Daily News considers, that Sir Philip Currie (the British ambassador to Turkey) should have left Constantinople at such a critical time.

The Chronicle (Liberal) argues that the question only really concerns England and Russia, who can do virtually as they like if they will only agree. The Chronicle suggests the constituting of Constantinople as a free city, with 50 miles of borderland on both sides of the streets.

The Times says editorially: Turkish news is of a grave and disquieting character. Like other things Turkish, the Armenian commission of control comes too late. The porte seems to hope that the summoning of the reserves will restore order, but at best the process of restoration is likely to be a rough one. The editorial then proceeds to argue that the Armenians, by their revolutionary tactics, have forfeited the sympathy of the English government, who has already, in their interest, gone as near provoking a disastrous disagreement with the European powers as would be permissible to a prudent nation.

Therefore, concludes The Times, we are disinclined to risk reopening the whole Eastern question for their sake.

Far From Settlement.

Official telegrams received here state that several persons were killed and wounded at Direbirkar on Friday during some riots from an Armenian attack upon the mosques.

Some Zeitoun Armenians attacked Lieutenant Hassan Agha, who, with his wife and children, were traveling through Marash, and killed the whole family and rifled the bodies of the victims.

The American missionaries in Bitlis have again complained to United States Minister Terrell that they are in imminent danger. Mr. Terrell and Michael Herbert, the British charge d'affaires, have, therefore, again made a demand upon the porte to insure the protection of the Americans.

The report which has been published of Turkish attacks upon the Bulanik, Kharput, Sivas, Urfa and elsewhere are not fully confirmed, but both the grand vizier and the Armenian patriarch have sent telegrams enjoining upon the people to put forth efforts to calm the excitement.

It is rumored that the Turks are still pillaging the Armenian shops in Erzroom, where the riots are found to have been more serious than was at first reported. It is now said that 200 corpses have already been counted.

The Armenian population of Anatolia are sending delegates to petition M. Nelidoff, the Russian ambassador, to request Russia to temporarily occupy the Armenian provinces.

It was Despair


The Lowell Daily Sun, Nov. 8, 1895


That Caused Armenians to Rise Against Turks.


Shifting the Blame From the Government.

LONDON, Nov. 8.— The Daily News' Constantinople correspondent, whose sympathies lean toward the Armenian side, admits that the Moslem attacks have aroused such a spirit of opposition and despair among the Armenians that instead of allowing themselves to be killed quietly, as at Trebizond and Akhissar, the Armenians themselves commenced the attack at Zytoun, Erzroom and elsewhere, besides making ill-advised and mischievous demonstrations In Constantinople.

It will take years, this correspondent continues, to revive confidence and trade and commerce lost through the present condition of anarchy, due to the deplorable weakness and inaction of the government.

As an instance of this, the correspondent cites the fact, that A. W. Terrell, United States minister, has been trying for two months to obtain permission for United States Consul Poche, at Aleppo, to see an American citizen of Armenian origin who has been sent to prison there for life.

It is pointed out that Minister Terrell has secured orders from the two grand viziers to the local authorities at Aleppo to grant this permission, which had either been rescinded before the consul had an opportunity to act upon it, or has been disobeyed by the local governor, the desired result being evaded rather than refused.

Is Minister Terrell's Influence Waning?

This is the more remarkable, The Daily News' correspondent observes, because Mr. Terrell has considerable personal influence at the porte. Yet, now, after demanding the dismissal of the vali at Aleppo, or that the porte itself should assume responsibility for refusal, he has only succeeded In getting an order for the prisoner to be brought here.

Kiamil Pasha, the retiring grand vizier has been appointed vali of Aleppo, to succeed the official who has held that place during Mr. Terrell's efforts to secure an interview with the prisoner.

The only hopeful sign in tho outlook according to the opinion of The Daily News correspondent, is the report that the troops at Erzroom, under Shakir Pasha. high commissioner to enforce the Armenian reforms, have attacked a Moslem mob, which had formed with a purpose of doing mischief to tho Armenians. If this is confirmed, the correspondent thinks, it will show that Turkey desires that the massacres shall cease.

A cipher letter, received from Erzincan, headquarters of the notorious Zekki Pasha, commander of the troops at the time of the Sassoun massacres, states that 2000 Armenians have been killed during the late disturbances.

A Vienna dispatch to The Daily News from Its correspondent there, says that he hears that unless there is an amelioration in the condition of affairs, Russia will occupy Armenia simultaneously with the holding of the European conference.

Said Pasha'a Modesty.

The Constantinople correspondent of The Standard sends an interview with Said Pasha, in which he says he could not claim that the Turkish administration was snow-white, but it was certainly not as black as it was painted. The ministers, he said, were working hard to carry out the scheme of reforms, and counted upon England's generosity not to increase the difficulties by encouraging the revolutionary Armenians, who, instead of being grateful for the concessions that have been made, were in open revolt throughout Asia.

A dispatch to The Standard from Vienna says that it is believed that the changes in the Turkish ministry are intended to appease Mohammedan disaffection, and are not a demonstration against England, although Kiamil Pasha, the out-going grand vizier, was the most pro-English of the pashas.

The new ministry was officially announced yesterday afternoon as follows: Said Pasha, minister of the council; Abdurrahman Pasha, minister of justice; Muduh Pasha, minister of the interior; Gareid Pasha, minister of worship; Zudhi Pasha, minister of education; Mahmud Djelalledin Pasha, minister of commerce and works; Sabri Pasha, minister of finance: Aarifl Pasha, minister without portfolio.

Neither Halil Rifat Pasha's name as grand, vizier, nor the name of the Sheik-Ul-Islam, is included in the official list.

As Might Be Expected.

The following telegram from the sublime porte, under Nov. 6 date, has been sent to Washington:

All news concerning plots, threatening letters and supposed dissatisfaction in the ranks of the army and navy is intentionally propagated by well-known newspaper correspondents affiliated with the Armenian committee to alarm public opinion. As for the oft-repeated assertion of the intended extermination of the Armenians, it is too absurd to be contradicted. The efforts of the Imperial government tend, on the contrary, to quell the revolt of the Armenians and to resist their criminal and bloody agitation.

The Armenian agitation at Diarbekir was on the point of subsiding when the Armenians began again their attacks upon the Mussulmans by throwing bombs at them, and by firing at the Muezzins at the very time when the latter were calling the faithful to prayers. During the affray, 50 Mussulmans and 90 Armenians were killed and wounded.

Armenian rioters attacked the patrols at Sivrik, killing a few Mussulmans, and setting fire to the bazaar. Two hundred Armenian revolutionists, having at their head Kevrok, chief of the parish of Ferus (Marsh), attacked the village of Tchoukour Hissar, and killed 12 Mussulmans. Some ot the agitators were arrested, including part of the Armenian brigands who captured Hadji Hassau Oglou Husni.

All news published as to the occurrence of trouble at Adana, Tarsus and [Mcrsiue] is absolutely without foundation.

Holdwater: The West would not give the Turks a fair shake. When the Ottoman government tried to explain what was really happening, they could count on being met with disbelief and sarcasm. After all, Armenians and missionaries wouldn't lie.

Wily Turks Claim Armenians Responsible for Disorders


The News (Maryland), Nov. 8, 1895


The Sultan Reorganizes His Corps of Advisers.


A Telegram from the Porte to the Powers in Which the Wily Turks Claim That the Armenians are Responsible for all Recent Disorders.

CONSTANTINOPLE, Nov.8 — A new Turkish ministry has been formed, as follows: Hali Rifat Pasha, grand vizier; Said Pasha, president of the council of state; Tewfik Pasha, minster of foreign affairs; Hassan Pasha, minister of marine; Riza Pasha, minister of war; Metuduh Pasha, minister of the interior; Abdur Raimar Pasha, minister of justice; Sabri Pasha, minister of France; Arid Pasha, minister without portfolio.

Kiamil Pasha, the retiring grand vizier, has been appointed vali of Aleppo.

Riza Pasha was minister of war in the last cabinet; Hassan Pasha was minister of marine in the last ministry; Hali Rifat Pasha is the e-minister of the Interior, and Tewfik Pasha has just, come here from Berlin, where he was Turkish ambassador to Germany. Finally, Said Pasha was minister of foreign affairs in the late cabinet and previously grand vizier.

Hali Rifat Pasha, the new grand vizier of Turkey, has the reputation of being an able administrator. He has held numerous high posts and is a man of broad views, judged from a Turkish standpoint.

The new grand vizier Is expected to have a moderating influence between the Mussulmans and the Christians, but it Is not thought that he will be able to do anything of a remarkable nature at the present serious juncture of affairs In the Turkish empire.

It is believed that the changes in the Turkish ministry are intended to appease Mahomedan disaffection, and are not a demonstration against England, although Kiamil Pasha, the outgoing grand vizier, was the most pro-English of the pashas.

In an interview Said Pasha said he could not claim that the Turkish administration was not snow white, but it was certainly not as black as it was painted. The ministers, he said, were working hard to carry out the scheme of reforms, and counted upon England's generosity not to increase the difficulties by encouraging the revolutionary Armenians. who, instead of being grateful for the concessions that had been made, were in open revolt throughout Asia.

The sublime porte has sent the following telegram to the powers:

"All news concerning plots, threatening letters and a supposed dissatisfaction in the ranks of the army and navy is intentionally propagated by well known newspaper correspondents, affiliated with the Armenian committee, to alarm public opinion. As for the often repeated assertion of the intended extermination of the Armenians, it is too absurd to be contradicted. The efforts of the imperial government, on the contrary, to quell the revolt of the Armenians and to resist their criminal and bloody agitation.

"The Armenian agitation at Diarbekir was on the point of subsiding when the Armenians begun again their attacks upon the Mussulmans by throwing bombs at them, and by firing at the muezzins when the latter were calling the faithful to prayers. During the affray fifty Mussulmans and ninety Armenians were killed and wounded.

"Armenian rioters attacked the patrols at Sivrik, killing a few Mussulmans and setting fire to the bazaar. Two hundred Armenian revolutionists, having at their head Kevrok, chief of the parish of Ferus (Marash), attacked the village of Tchoukour Hissar and killed twelve Mussulmans. Some of the agitators were arrested, including part of the Armenian brigands who captured Hadji Hassan Oglous Husni.

"All news published as to the occurrence of trouble at Adana, Tarsus and Mersine, is absolutely without foundation."

Armenians Have Acted Hastily.

LONDON, Nov.8.-The Daily News Constantinople correspondent, whose sympathies lean toward the Armenian side, admits that the Moslem attacks have aroused such a spirit of opposition and despair among the Armenians that instead of allowing themselves to be killed quietly, as at Trebizond and Akhissar, the Armenians themselves commenced the attack at Zeiton, Erzeroum and elsewhere, besides making ill advised and mischievous demonstrations in Constantinople. "It will take years," this correspondent continues, "to revive confidence and trade and commerce lost through the present condition of anarchy due to the deplorable weakness and inaction of the government."

The Sultan Looking to His Own Safety.

LONDON, Nov. 8.-The Berlin correspondent of The Times says of Tewfik Pasha, tbe new Turkish minister of foreign affairs: "While here Tewfik displayed no qualities fitting him to be a good foreign minister. He has won the sultan's confidence by the timely detection of palace plots, and he is likely to be a docile palace Instrument. It looks, therefore, as if the sultan were thinking more of his own safety than of the gravity of the political situation."

Snubs Great Britain


The Decatur Review (Illinois), Nov. 10, 1895, P. 6



Decoration of Bahri Pasha Is Looked Upon as an Approval of Armenian Outrages — More Christians Arrested Without Just Cause.

Constantinople, Nov. 9.— The Official Gazette announces that Bahri Pasha, who was dismissed from his official position in pursuance of the representations of the British ambassador. Sir Philip Currie, owing to his ill-treatment of Armenians, has been decorated with the grand cordon of the Osmanieh Order, "as a reward for bis good services." This step upon the part of the sultan is considered most significant. It is not only an open and distinct mark of approval of the ill-treatment of Armenians, but it is a deliberate snub to Great Britain, particularly as, in addition to the decoration bestowed upon Bahri Pasha, the Official Gazette publishes a long list of the names of Turkish officials in Armenia who have been decorated by the sultan for their "good services." In fact, it almost seems as if the sultan is openly defying the powers.

It is understood that the Vali of Aleppo, who is to be succeeded by the ex-grand vizier, Kiamil Pasha, was dismissed in consequence of the representations of the United States minister to Turkey. Alexander W. Terrell, because the vali refused to permit the United States consular agent at Aleppo to visit a naturalized American citizen, Guendjiam. of Armenian origin, who had been imprisoned for life. Mr. Terrell obtained permission from the grand viziers for the consular agent to visit Guendjiam, but the vali persisted in his refusal to permit the prisoner to be seen. The eventual result was that Mr. Terrell made the strongest representations to the porte.

Over one hundred Armenians have been arrested at Stamboul, and all the inquiries made as to the cause of their imprisonment have failed to obtain a satisfactory answer.

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Massacre to Begin as Soon as Europeans Occupy the Turkish Empire.

Worcester. Mass., Nov.9.-The Huntchagists here, who are the leading Armenian revolutionists in America, have received advices from Harpoot that plans have been perfected by Raouf Pasha, the military commandant for the massacre of every Christian in Harpoot and the villages of Moulta-Kany and [Hoghe].

The Turks and Kurds have been armed by the commandant, who will give the signal for the slaughter to begin as soon as Europeans make a move to occupy the country. It has caused great excitement among local Armenians and a mass-meeting is to be called and an attempt made to arouse public sympathy in the United States.

Great Britain was acting abominably toward the Ottoman Turks in the post Gladstone era, and this reporter expected the "island empire" to be treated with reverence.

Ready to Submit


Oakland Tribune, November 20, 1895, front page


Turkey Is Showing the White Feather to the Powers.


Promises That the Reforms Will Bs Promptly Made.


Christianity Will Not Allow Mohammedanism to Triumph.

By Associated Press to the Tribune. BERLIN, Nov. 21 — Nothing further has been received from Sofia, Bulgaria, in any way tending to confirm the dispatch from Constantinople that the Sultan of Turkey had been poisoned.

It is believed there is no foundation for the report. CONSTANTINOPLE, Nov. 20?. — A dispatch from Tiflis, in Russian trans-Caucasia, says the Armenian Catholics have received a reply to the communication recently sent to the Russian Ambassador here [?. de Nehdoff], as follows:

"The Armenians of Constantinople are now reassured. They are threatened with no danger.

"In the provinces, however, there are regrettable conflicts, which in most cases were caused by Armenians instigated by their revolutionary committees.

"The result is a terrible revenge on the part of the Turks In the shape of horrible massacres of Christians.

"The Sultan has mentioned the scheme for reforms submitted by the three great powers and preparations are now proceeding to carry them out.

"To this end it is necessary that the leaders of the people should dissuade the latter to desist from revolutionary attempts, abandon the hope of foreign intervention, put a stop to all disturbances and co-operate in the re-establishment of universal peace in improving the situation and in the introduction of a new order of things."


As intimated In these dispatches, in the last few days, the attitude of the Porte or of the Sultan, has undergone a decided change since other fleets began to join the British fleet In a naval demonstration at Salonica Bay.

There is no doubt the pressure brought to bear upon the Sultan has been strong enough to make him take personal charge of the work of reform In Armenia, and it is hoped there will be no further bloodshed except in the case of putting down the insurrections which have broken out against Turkish rule in different parts of Asia Minor.

It is hoped the Armenian clergy will be able to induce their co-religionists to lay down arms, especially as the sentiment of the whole of Europe Is now in favor of the Sultan, whose evident desire to meet the views of the powers Is thoroughly appreciated and has undoubtedly tided over the most difficult crisis In the east.

There Is no longer any talk of the armed intervention of the powers in the Turkish empire, and if any display of force is necessary upon the part of Europe it might be in the direction of supporting the authority of the Sultan, as Great Britain, Russia and France are extremely desirous that order shall be promptly restored throughout Asia Minor.


LONDON, Nov. 20. — A dispatch from Constantinople to the Globe this afternoon confirms the report of the ill-treatment to which a Canadian missionary, Rev. Mr. Martin has been subjected by the Turks. He was beaten and afterwards imprisoned sixteen hours near Hadjin, Province of Adana.


Rustem Pasha, Turkish ambassador to London, died this morning.

He was an Italian by birth, and before entering the service of the Turkish government bore the title of Count Malini.

He distinguished himself as governor of Lebanon, where he put an end to corruption and prompted a healthy reform in all departments of the government.


BOSTON, Nov. 20.-A letter received In this city by a reliable correspondent in Constantinople contains the following on the situation there:

The Turks are more sensible than before, as they realize the action of the Armenians is not against themselves, but against a system of government which all detest.

There Is a remarkable change from the feeling of three weeks ago, when any Turk seemed to long to kill any Armenian.

At the same time the palace party is diligently circulating stories of Armenian outrages in the lowest classes to keep up the feeling of anger against them.

The Turkish patriotic party is openly declaring that the Sultan is the cause of all the troubles that afflict the country.

The Minister of Marine has been threatened by the Moslem patriotic committee and is carefully guarded by troops in his palace.

In the region of Baghchejig and Adabazer, the efforts of the military commander of Nicomedia to turn the Mohammedan population into violence against the Christian villages have produced great terror.

In Aintab the people have been brought to desperation by the ferocity with which taxes are being collected.

The Governor-General of Aleppo is a rascal whose disregard of the treaties as to the rights of Americans led Minister Terrel to demand his removal. Relief to the whole mass of people will come if this scoundrel can be overthrown.

Bloodshed must follow if the Armenians are to be goaded on into open rebellion in that region.

The Trebizond massacre seems to have been even more terrible than was at first reported.

The Turkish loss was possibly two men killed in Armenians defending their own lives. The Armenian loss is now carried up to 2,000 In the city and villages.


ELWOOD, Ind., Nov. 20 —  In an interview concerning the Adventist belief regarding the present Turkish troubles and their relation to prophecy, Elder W. H. Ebert, of Frankton, Ind,, one of the leading exponents of that belief, said:

"We Seventh-day Adventists believe the present Turkish crisis foreshadows the end of the world, the destruction of its kingdoms and the second coming of Jesus Christ.

"We base our belief upon the fulfillment of prophecy, and see in it the present movements of the nations, the gathering together of the nations to fight the last great battle of the centuries — the battle of the Armageddon.

"The Ottoman power, or Mohammedan power, Is the one meant in the ninth chapter of revelations, to. which was to be given a power to torment men five months, or [450] years In prophetic time, when It was to gain supremacy and be given power to kill men [391] years and 15 days.

"The Ottoman empire fulfills all these conditions, for it was founded by Othman July 27th, 1290, and for [450] years tormented men when it became supreme until August [14th, 1840].

When the [391] years and 15 days ended, it killed the third part of men, as prophecied, when its power was dried up to prepare the way of the Kings of the Lost, which was fulfilled when France, Russia, Prussia and England forced their ultimatum on the Mohammedan power August [11th, 1840.] Thus was fulfilled the first part of the vision of the sixth [Vial.]

"The three unclean spirits wen then loosed and went forth to deceive the nation, and they are spiritualism, nihilism and infidelity, and they are doing their work well.

"They are gathering the nations together for the great battle of Armaggedon.

"The King of the South-possibly the English power-after overrunning Egypt Sudan and Turkey. will encamp in the glorious Holy Mountain in the Holy Land, and the nations will be compelled to bring their mighty armies and munitions of war against this power and will encamp in the plains of Armaggedon.

"The nations are now moving toward that battlefield, and all their terrible implements of modern warfare will be there when the seventh vial is poured, when the battle of Armageddon, which is described in symbols in [Rev., G?hap, 17-21], will result. The great cities of the nations will be that tented [hld] and it will be divided into three parts-- the Roman power, the Mohammedan power and the other powers represented.

"The hall spoken of means cannon balls, the earth on the explosion of the batteries, and the lake of fire and brimstone will be the battlefield itself. It will be a battle of annihilation and the kingdoms of the world will go down to rise no more.

The United States will probably not be represented in this battle, but will be among the remnant left to be destroyed afterward. When this battle occurs, as it shortly must, its climax will be the second coming of Christ,

"The end of all things is even now at the door, and the nations cannot long strangle ihc Turkish complications, as the unrest of nations Is urging them on to bring about these things, for fear of which nations are trembling. The time is near; watch."

Holdwater: Wonder who the source might have been behind "The Turkish loss was possibly two men killed in Armenians defending their own lives. The Armenian loss is now carried up to 2,000 In the city and villages."

And isn't it amazing that the opinion of a hateful religious fanatic was sought? Perhaps not so surprising, given one of the sub-headlines, which pretty much summed these matters up: " Christianity Will Not Allow Mohammedanism to Triumph. "

Terrell Confirms the Massacres


Fort Wayne Weekly Gazette, Dec. 05, 1895


Minister Terrell Has Reports on the Massacres in Turkey.

CONSTANTINOPLE, November 29.— United States Minister Terrell has received details confirming the reported massacre of Christians and the destruction of American mission property at Marash on November 18. It is now established beyond doubt that the school of science attached to the American mission and other buildings were pillaged and set on fire, and that two other buildings belonging to Americans were ransacked. Mr. Terrell's advices also confirm the statement that no protection was afforded the Americans or their property. In spite of the promises of the porte, until eight hours before the rioting. The American missionaries telegraphing under date of Tuesday last, November 26, from Marash, say they are all safe under the protection of Turkish authorities. An estimate is being made of the damage done and the Turkish officials say they are doing everything possible to recover the property looted from American buildings.

But the Turk Claims All Is Lovely.

WASHINGTON, November 29.— The Turkish legation received from the sublime porte the following telegram under to-day's date: The Armenian revolutionists of Keban disregarding the advice of the local authorities, and having fired on the soldiers, the latter had to answer back. Then the rioters, after setting fire to their houses, escaped to [Ferns] and Zeitoon. With the exception of this incident, tranquility prevails at the province of Aleppo. On the 15th instant the Armenians of Erzerum seeing that some officials of Regie were arresting some smugglers, closed their shops and during the panic that followed five Armenians were killed and six wounded. No disorders whatever took place on the 24th and 25th instants to many of the provinces. An Armenian of Marash set fire to his house, situated in the Mussulman part of the city, in order to start a fire. The authorities of Diarik and Yildizli, have found and restored to their owners the greater part of the stolen articles and cattle.

Holdwater: Once again, the dripping sarcasm, and the determined disbelief greeting whatever the Turks said.

  600 Armenians Arrested


Manitoba Morning Free Press, June 16, 1896


Constantinople, June 5.— It is stated on reliable authority that 600 Armenians have been arrested in this city since June 9. A majority of the prisoners are from Rodosto. The members of the Armenian revolutionary committee, who, on Monday last, assassinated an Armenian spy in this city and who was shot and killed by the patrol while trying to escape, was a native of Rodosto. Two hundred of the prisoners were shipped to Anatolia. The government is using the occasion of the assassination to expel possible agitators.

Armenians To Be Executed


The Weekly Gazette And Stockman, Nov. 7, 1895

Armenians To Be Executed.

By Cable and Associated Press.
CONSTANTINOPLE, October 31. — A sensation has been caused by the report, generally believed to be correct, that three Armenian notabilities of Trebizond, including prominent ecclesiastics, are to be executed on the ground tbat they were responsible for the recent rioting there. The Armenians report about 800 Armenians killed during the fighting at Bitlis with the Turks. The loss to the latter was trifling.

Advices from Moosh say leading Armenians have been conferring with representatives of the Turks regarding a means to prevent an outbreak in their borders similar to those in different parts of Armenia, which resulted in so much bloodshed.

It is added that the Turks have stipulated that the American missionaries distributing relief to the suffering people of Sassoun withdraw in three days; otherwise the Turkish nobility fear their massacre, such as just occurred at Bitlis.

But here another complication arises. The Kurds of Sassoun are only held in check by the missionaries and threaten the plunder of the Armenians on the departure of the missionaries. The mere presence of Turkish troops is far from being a sufficient guarantee against a repetition of the bloodshed which recently occurred in other parts of Armenia, and nothing but the most energetic action, it is asserted, can avert serious disturbances.

The Armenian Patriarch has appealed to the different embassies here to intervene in time to prevent another massacre. The Turkish officials, in reply, again assert that the "Hinticht," the Armenian secret society, provoked all the riots.

CONSTANTINOPLE, Nov. 1.— Advices from Marsovan, Asia Minor, show that the trouble anticipated by United States Ambassador Terrill [sic] in his recent report, has culminated in an attempt to burn the American college there. It is added that it would have been in cinders unless it had been discovered. The agitation against the Americans at Marsovan began a year ago, when some pupils of the American college were expelled because their fathers were suspected of being implicated in the Armenian movement. This caused suspicion to fall upon five professors, two of whom are Americans.

Terrill notified the authorities at Washington that Garabed, a naturalized American citizen, had been assassinated at Marsovan, close to a church door, when going to attend religious service.

Garabed was one of the students previously sent away from college at the request of the Turkish authorities, on the ground that he was connected with the Armenian revolutionists. He was the chief man of the Protestant committee at Marsovan and chairman of the council of thirty held responsible for the peace of that city. Garabed, however, is said to have been murdered by revolutionists because he had given the government information regarding their plans.

At the same time Terrill notified the State Department at Washington that the revolutionists had marked professors at Marsovan for slaughter long before the Sassoun atrocities were committed.

President Tracey and Professor Riggs of Marsovan College were especially disliked by the revolutionists, and their lives threatened for having consented to the expulsion of the Armenian students suspected of being in sympathy with the revolutionary movement. Eventually a Turkish guard was furnished the college at the request of Terrill, and all danger seemed to be passed, especially as the United States authorities previously compelled the Turkish government to pay indemnity for the destruction of school buildings at Marsovan.

Villages Burned


The Marion Daily Star, Nov. 16, 1895 (Also in same-dated Newark Daily Advocate)


And Many Persons Reported Killed.


According to Turkish Dispatches Armenians Are Charged With All Manner of Lawlessness — Palace of the Governor Attacked — Revolutionists Preparings For an Aggressive Campaign.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Nov. 16.— Official dispatches received here contain additional accounts of Armenian lawlessness. It is reported that the Armenians have attacked the villages of Forsakh, Bitchli and Behransis. near Zeitoun, firing 57 houses in all. They also burned the village of Kurbel and one Mohammetan was burned alive. Eighteen Mussulmans of both sexes were killed and 15 wounded by the rioters at Tchoukour Hissar. The town of Tchoukour Hissar was totally destroyed. Several Mussulman villages have been attacked in the Azirlon and Tchokmerzemenk districts. The sultan has sent fresh peremtory [sic] instructions to the valis of different districts where the disorders have occured [sic], as well as to the military commanders, telling them that they must promptly restore order by the just and equitable treatment of both Christians and Mohammetans.

Bloody Conflicts Reported.

WASHINGTON, Nov. 10.-The Turkish legation at Washington has received the following communication from the sublime porte:

"The Armenian revolutionists of Sivas after taking out of their shops all the merchandise attacked the Mussulmans, they fired from the windows of their houses and wounded severely one soldier. A pistol shot broke the window of the rooms occupied by the governor general. They also attacked the village of Mardjilik, killed many Mussulmans and committed many offenses against law and order. The authorities of Arabgnir discovered 40 bombs which the Armenian agitators had buried in order to blow up public buildings, such as the barracks, the palace of the governor, the military storehouse and the like. The fire that broke out in the city originated from bombs prepared for that purpose. The Turkish population of Arabguir being attacked by 1,500 rioters, perfectly armed and equipped, telegraphed to the imperial government for protection. The provincial authorities neglected absolutely nothing to preserve peace.

"The Armenian revolutionists of Erzindjan fired upon the Mussulmans and attacked the palace of the governor, the military station and other buildings. They were repulsed, however, by the military.

"The Armenian revolutionists of Arabguir, having attacked the Mussulman quarter of Kuejinar, a bloody conflict occurred between Mussulmans and Armenians. Another conflict took place near the Saroy (Van) between Armenian brigands and gendarmes. The brigands fled to the village of Bogazkean, but they were dispersed. Many gendarmes were killed aud wounded

"The agitators, Kircer and Kevork, of the village of Kemer (Sivas) who fired shots, and in whose houses ammunition and cartridges were discovered, have been arrested.

"More than 5,000 Armenian revolutionists are at Tchoukmerzen (Adana) and it is reported they are preparing for active aggressions."

Holdwater: Strangely, the accounts by the Ottoman government were treated seriously this go-round. Perhaps some honorable journalists were beginning to get the skinny on the immoral Armenians. Word was filtering in by this time not only through U.S. officials, but even a few missionaries themselves. See following report.

Armenian Outrages


Middletown Daily Argus, Aug.16,1895


Cruel Treatment of American Citizens in Marsovan.


Demands the Release of Americans Unjustly Accused and Prompt Trial of Those Who Are Revolutionists —  The Latter Threans Objectionable Persons.

WASHINGTON, Aug. 16.— The department of state has just received from Minister Terrell a report which throws some light on the report telegraphed from Constantinople a few days ago, saying that American citizens had been injured at Marsovan. From Minister Terrell's report it appears that on July 1 an Armenian named Garabed was assassinated at Marsovan, close to the church door, as he was going to attend early service. He was the chief man of the Protestant community and chairman of the council of thirty, who are responsible for the peace of the city. It was alleged that he had given the government information in regard to the revolutionists.

Consul Jewett. in reporting this case July 13 to Consul General Short, at Constantinople, says that numerous Armenians were arrested, as it was said there was little doubt Garabed was murdered by them. Among those arrested was a naturalized American citizen, who had been a student at the American college at Marsovan, but who. as Mr. Jewett was informed, had been dropped from the roll some months ago.

Minister Terrell was promptly informed concerning the assassination and the imprisonments which followed it, and took immediate steps to insure fair treatment of the naturalized citizens, and called upon Mr. Jewett for any trustworthy information he might have regarding the danger to the missionary teachers at Marsovan from Armenian revolutionists. He informed Mr. Jewett that though Turkey has a right to expel undesirable classes of people from her territory, she has no right to treat the acquired American citizenship of any of them as an offense, and to imprison them for that cause, nor to imprison them on mere suspicion. He instructed him in such cases promptly to demand their release, and that if any of them are arrested while engaged in armed resistance to the government to demand a fair trial.

Mr. Terrell's report of the troubles at Marsovan is based upon a verbal statement of Mr. Dwight, a leading American missionary at Constantinople, and is as follows:

"More than a year ago sixteen persons at Marsovan received written notices that they would be killed unless they co-operated with the Armenian revolutionists. President Tracy and Professor Briggs [Riggs?], of Marsovan college, were two of these. They had incurred the ill will of the revolutionists by refusing to receive in the college the sons of certain men suspected of being revolutionists. Garabed. who was assassinated, was another of the sixteen, who received notice, and Mr. Dwight has been informed that still another has been assassinated. A Turkish guard was furnished at the request of Mr. Terril [sic; Terrell] to protect the American families from the assassins. Mr. Dwight considers that guard sufficient to protect the missionaries at the college, and Mr. Terrell has not applied for an additional force.

"The local governor informed the Armenians, after the killing, that he intended to arrest all suspected persons and imprison them until they revealed the names of the guilty ones; that their object was to provoke Turkish vengeance in order to secure the sympathy and intervention of Christian Europe, but that they would not succeed, as he had caused to be preached in the mosques for months that such was their object, and that any Turk who killed a Christian would be the worst enemy of Islam."

Mr. Terrell adds that the revolutionists of Mursovan had organized, and marked the American professors long before the Sassoun atrocities.

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Also on same front page:

Irishmen Want War with England.

PITTSBURG. Aug. 16.— Five thousand Irishmen, representing the United Irish societies of western Pennsylvania. met at Phoenix Park last night and passed resolutions advocating physical force in Ireland's cause. Mayor Bernard McKenna, of Pittsburg, presided. Dr. Paul M. Sheddy introduced the resolutions. They advocated the formation of a secret service corps in the form of organized revolutionists. The convention called for Sept. 24. in Chicago, was condemned on the ground that it was only intended to advance the political interests of its originators.

Holdwater: It appears the Irish were learning from the Armenians.

Minister Terrell was evidently beginning to see the light. A big bravo to the missionary, Dwight.

Constantinople Riots


Dubuque Daily Herald, Aug. 28, 1896


Leaders of the Mob Haven Surrendered and Will Be Punished.

Constantinople, Aug. 27.— The riots which yesterday caused so much excitement throughout the city are apparently at an end. The leaders of the mob which attacked the Ottoman bank have surrendered, and will be expelled from Turkey. An official account of the troubles attributes the riots to an organized effort of the central committee of the Armenian revolutionists to stir up a revolution. The rioters from the window of the bank and hotel rained bombs, shot and missiles upon the heads of passersby, wounding many persons. Many similar events reported from various portions of the city. It is known a great many persons were killed, but it impossible to ascertain the exact number owing to prevalent excitement and desire on the part of armenians [sic] as well as Turkish authorities to keep the identity of the killed and wounded secret.

Armenian Rioters in Constantinople Shed Much Blood


Evening Bulletin, Aug. 28, 1896


Armenian Rioters in Constantinople Shed Much Blood


The Ottoman Bank Looted — Bombs Are Exploded — Gendarmes Beheaded — Four Ladies Among the Killed — Mob Leaders Surrender.

Constantinople, Aug. 28.—The riots which Wednesday caused so much excitement throughout Constantinople are apparently at an end. The leaders of the mob which attacked the officers of the Ottoman bank surrendered and will be expelled from Turkey.

It is known that a great many persons have been killed, but it is impossible to ascertain the exact number owing to the prevalent excitement and the desire on the part of the Armenians, as well as the Turkish authorities to keep the identity of the killed and wounded secret. The Armenian patriarch has excommunicated all Armenians concerned in this latest uprising.

The official account of the troubles attributes the riots to an organized effort on the part of the central committee of the Armenian revolutionists to stir up a revolution.

The invaders, as if by a preconcerted arrangement. suddenly entered the great hall of the Ottoman bank armed with revolvers. daggers and dynamite bombs. Forming in small groups, they were accosted by the officer of the guards who demanded from them a statement of their business with the bank.

Without stopping to reply they blew out his brains and then killed and beheaded the gendarmes, throwing heads of the dead men out into the streets. During the resultant confusion, they closed the doors of the bank and hurled a number of bombs into the street.

Four Turkish women who were driving along in a carriage were blown to pieces by the explosion of one of the dynamite bombs. Two of the French employes of the bank, while descending from a window by means of a rope were wounded by one of the explosions. They narrowly escaped with their lives by reason of the timely intervention of the imperial troops. The rioters captured a hotel in the city of Constantinople and bombs and shots and missiles fairly rained upon the heads of the passersby, wounding many persons. Many similar events are reported from various portions of the city.

To Try Turkish Rioters


New York Times, Sept. 1, 1896



A Turkish Mob Attacking Armenians Clubbed Away by British Marines —The Sultan Protests, and Receives a Sharp Answer from the English Charge d'Affaires — American Houses Sacked and the Armenian Servants All Killed.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Aug. 31— A special judicial committee began sessions in this city to-day for the purpose of trying 400 Moslems and Armenians who are accused of having participated in the recent rioting in and around Constantinople.

Chaker Pasha and [Vehdy] Pasha have been appointed to the command of the military in Constantinople and Galata, respectively, with orders summarily to suppress any signs of disorder.

The Italian dispatch boat Galilee has been ordered to Constantinople as a second guardship.

A detachment of British marines who were marching from the British guardship to the English Embassy yesterday clubbed and beat back a Turkish mob which was maltreating a number of Armenians in the street. The Porte made a complaint to the conduct of the troops to Mr. Michael Herbert, British Charge d'Affaires, who replied that the marines had a perfect right to protect the Armenians if the Turkish troops did not [?] to do so.

The police to-day discovered an Armenian bomb factory in full operation. The work of making bombs was carried on in an underground vault near the northern walls of the city.

The British Embassy here will oblige all of the English families who have taken refuge upon the chartered steamer Hungaria to return to their homes.

At Hasskein yesterday the houses of a number of Armenians living in that place were attacked by Turks, the male heads of these domestic establishments being absent. All of the Armenians servants In the dwellings were killed und the houses sacked. The ladies escaped to Yenikol for protection. having lost all their personal effects.

The estimates of the number of persons killed in the recent disturbances here are increasing.

The city has remained quiet to-day, except for the throwing of a bomb and the firing of a number of shots from revolvers by Armenians who were concealed in a flour store in Galata. No one was Injured by the bomb or bullets, and no damage to property resulted.

An imperial rescript has been issued, requesting the inhabitants not to make any excursions, either by land or water, this evening, upon the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the accession to the Sultanate of Abdul Hamid II.

The foreign diplomats have sent a second note to the Tone calling attention to the conclusive evidence obtained that the Moslem mob which massacred the Armenians was organized with the connivance of certain officials. It is known also that hundreds of ruffians were brought from the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus to take part in the work of murder and rapine, and were sent back to their homes after the bloody work had been finished.

LONDON, Aug. 31 — Sir Philip Currie. British Ambassador to Turkey, left London to-day on his return to Constantinople, his leave of absence having expired.


He Describes the Horrors of the Armenian Revolution In Turkey.

WASHINGTON, AUG. 31.— The Turkish Legation has received from the Sublime Porte the following telegram:

" The Central Committee of the Armenian revolutionists of Constantinople organized on a vast scale a programme of disorder and criminal acts. Separate groups of the revolutionists began their misdeeds at the same hour, but at different points of the capital. Besides revolvers and daggers, they used bombs of dynamite. About fifty of these men, entering separately into the Imperial Ottoman Bank, began by killing the guards and policemen, and throwing their heads in the street. Availing themselves of the general confusion that resulted, they shut the doors of the bank and fired and threw bombs from the windows on the passers-by. Four Turkish ladles were cut to pieces by one explosion, and two French clerks of the bank were wounded and would have been killed if Turkish soldiers had not come to their rescue.

At the same moment the [?am] of Djelal Bey, situated at Stamboul, was taken possession of by other revolutionists. who threw a run of bombs on those who happened to be in the streets near by. At the [Paowatia?] quarter, another band of Armenian Anarchists took possession of the public school and began there, too, to throw bombs in all directions, killing many innocent victims. In many parts of the capital, and even in the Armenians church of Pera? a great number of dynamite bombs were discovered.

"The Armenians faithful to the Imperial throne are indignant. and their Patriarch excommunicated in the name of Jesus Christ all the criminals who put in jeopardy the lives of innocent men and women. The Patriarch begged the Sublime Porte to communicate to the press his decision against the revolutionists, in order to stigmatize before the civilized world their crimes and horrors.

" A special commission has been instituted to judge the revolutionists caught in arms, as well as all Mussulmans who have been arrested under the charge of retaliation. The commission is composed of eight Christians and Mussulmans under the Presidency of Djelal Bey, member of the High Court of Turkey."

Turkish Banks Reopened


The New York Times, Sept. 3, 1896


But Practically No Business Done in Constantinople

CONSTANTINOPLE, Sept. 2.— All of the banks In Constantinople and Galutu, except the Credit Lyonnais. reopened their doors for business yesterday. Practically no business was transacted, but It is, nevertheless, a fact that commercial confidence is returning.

LONDON, Sept. 2.— It Is learned In the Foreign Office circle that Sir Philip Currie. the British Ambassador to Turkey, who started on his return to Constantinople on Monday. left England with instructions in dealing with the Sultan to act Independently of the other Ambassadors to the Porte if the occasion should require it.

Sir Philip, according to this source of Information, is also to have free command of British naval aid to enforce such demands as he may make. The Sultan will be advised of the change In England's policy in Turkey Immediately after the arrival of Sir Philip Currie In Constantinople.

WASHINGTON, Sept. 2 — The Turkish Legation has received from the Sublime Porte the following telegram: " When the troops were passing through Pera, on their return from the Selamlik, a bomb was thrown at them from a house, but although the bomb exploded, no harm was done. Three Armenians were arrested in connection with this attempt.

In the rooms of the ministers of the school for girls at Psomatia thirty-six bombs, dynamite, and firearms were discovered. The number of soldiers and agents of the authorities killed or wounded by the Armenian revolutionists during the troubles was considerable."

Armenian Societies Swear to Ruin the Porte

The New York Times,
Sept. 24, 1896



They Receive Orders from a Secret Central Committee — They Are Responsible for the Recent Disturbances — France Has Begun Negotiations to Settle the Turkish Question, with the Aid of England and Russia, at Once.

PARIS, Sept. 23 — A dispatch from Constantinople says that the Armenian revolutionary societies now existing there are five in number. The members of these societies, the dispatch asserts, are bound by most solemn oaths to bring about the ruin of the Ottoman Empire and to force the European powers to intervene in Turkey.

The organizations receive their orders from a secret central committee. The demonstration against the Porte in 1985 and the recent attack upon and seizure of the Ottoman Bank by Armenians devolved upon the Hintchak and Drochak Societies respectively, and three other revolutionary organizations will act successively to accomplish the results at which they aim.

Holdwater: "Drochak" meant Dashnak. Original clipping.


French Ambassador Warns Sultan / Armenian Immigration


Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, Sept. 30, 1896, Front page


French Ambassador Minced no Words in Warning the Sultan

Paris, Sept. 30 — A dispatch to the Temps from Constantinople says it is stated that "M. Cambon, the French. ambassador, has informed his colleagues that during his audience with the sultan on Friday last he acquainted his majesty with the uneasiness that the recent unchecked anarchy in Constantinople caused in Europe.

He declared that a repetition of the disorder would lead Europe to intervene, in consequence of the danger to which foreigners would be exposed.

He advised the sultan to exercise clemency to bring about the pacification of the Armenians and to differentiate the peaceful masses from the revolutionary element.

M. Cambon further stated that he had demanded the release of the thousands of innocent persons who were in prison;, the convoking of the Armenian assembly for the election of a patriarch and the execution of the reforms that had been promised by his majesty.

It is stated that the sultan promised to convoke the assembly and to extend the promised reforms to the whole empire.

The porte has issued a statement rejoicing at the apparent reaction in some of the London newspapers against the excessive and anti-sultan agitation in Great Britain, which, it declares, is answerable for the terror in Constantinople, the foreign residents naturally fearing the wrath of the Mussulmans at the insults to the sultan uttered 'by the speakers at the public meetings and by the journals in England. The statement continues:

"Despite the organized agitation, vituperation and clamorous provocation emanating from London, the porte has succeeded by dint of energy and watchfulness in proving that the alarm, of its English insulters is unfounded.

"The porte does not associate the British nation, for which it has the highest regard, with the agitation of a few hot-brained politicians, who are led astray by their passions.

"The moderation of the. European nations will, far more than the vociferations of England, help the porte to protect foreigners and Turkish subjects in the capital against the plots ot Armenian revolutionists."

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( Front page )

American Immigration Laws will Not Permit the Entrance of Penniless Armenians.


Sympathy and Sentiment Can Not Interfere With Enforcement of Law.

Washington, Sept. 30 — The attention of Commissioner Stump of the immigration bureau has been called to the movement looking to the colonization in this country of Armenian refugees. Mr. Stump said that Secretary Carlisle and himself had been fully advised of such a movement, and various appeals had been made from Lady Henry Somerset and Miss Frances Willard, and English and American relief societies, asking for the co-operation of the government in furnishing these stricken people an asylum in the United States.

While the sympathies of all good people must be aroused in their behalf, the officers of the government must enforce the laws as they exist. The matter was being investigated, and if any lawful means could be found they would be exercised in behalf of the refugees. The law on the subject, however, strictly inhibits the landing in this country of all persons likely to become [?] a public charge, and also "any person whose ticket or 'passage is paid for with he money of another, or who is assisted by others to come."

Lady Henry Somerset, it is understood. has inquired .whether bonds would be accepted that these Armenians will not become public charges, and a reply has been sent stating that the Department cannot accept bonds, except under special circumstances, and after thorough investigation of each individual case. Mr. Stump said that he was in full sympathy with any movement looking to the relief of the American refugees, but "sympathies cannot be allowed to interfere with a strict enforcement of law."

Threats of the Armenians


New York Times, Oct. 4, 1896


The Porte Negotiating with Their Revolutionary Committee.

CONSTANTINOPLE. Oct. 3.— On Thursday Oct. 1, the foreign diplomats received from the Armenian revolutionists a third threat of an Armenian demonstration. In the communication conveying the threat the revolutionists declared that "terrible events" would soon take place.

The leader of the Revolutionary Armenian Committee, in reply to questions about the threat, says it must have emanated from some one of the weaker revolutionary societies, which is totally unable to carry out its menace. The Huntchakist Party, he savs, had nothing to do with it, and is not prepared to take any action beyond the private removal of certain persons by assassination. Otherwise, he says, the Huntchakists will await events.

The Porte is negotiating with the Armenian Revolutionary Committee with a view of obtaining the cessation of dynamite outrages on the part of the revolutionists, promising in return to sanction the election of a new Armenian Patriarch, to grant general amnesty to Armenian political offenders, and effect reforms in all of the Asiatic provinces. Nobody believes in the good faith of the Porte in making these promises.

From what Is generally accepted as a reliable source of information. it is reported here that an entente has been established between England and Russia in regard to Turkey.

Armenian Banker May Lose Head / Alliance vs. Turkey

Hawaiian Gazette, Oct. 20, 1896


His Fortune of a Million to be Confiscated.

NEW YORK Oct 3 —The Sun's London cable says: A short time ago Apik Oundjian Effendi. the millionaire Armenian contractor in Constantinople, was arrested on a charge of bribing state functionaries and embezzling Government funds. Within a week he managed to secure his release, and it has since been learned that the operation of unlocking the prison doors cost him $100,000. Had he been wise, Apik would have realized as much on his property as he could without attracting attention and taken the first steamer for Marseilles. He chose to dally, with the result that he is once more in prison with less chance of getting out, for he is charged with high treason, and if this is proven as there is little difficulty in doing, for witnesses are unusually cheap in Stamboul, the traitor's property can be confiscated The moment is a mighty bad one for the wealthy subjects of the Sultan, particularly Armenians.

Grumpkow Pasha, a German who has done well in the Sultan's service, has been touring in Europe on a desperate mission of raising a loan for his imperial master, no matter what interest might be demanded, for the Sultan's body guard has been in a state of incipient mutiny owing to arrears of pay and if their fidelity failed, his much worried majesty knew that he would be lost. Grumpkow was treated almost with contumely in every European capital, but in Berlin, it Is understood, he managed to obtain $300,000 at 2 per cent, or more, according to one version of the story. With this money the troops around the Yildiz Kiosk were paid something on account and the rest of the cash was expended in new rifles and full supplies of ammunition for them, and then the Sultan felt that he needed pocket money.

It was at that critical juncture that a police report reached the palace that on one of the Armenian conspirators recently arrested had been found a document giving a list of subscriptions to the revolutionary treasury, and that the list contained the name of Apik Oundjian Effendi, with a very big sum placed opposite it. Within an hour Apik was once more under lock and key. He protested that he gave money to the revolutionists under threats of assassination, and the statement is no doubt true enough for the accused was never known to give anything previously, and there is pretty ample proof that the conspirators who seized the Ottoman Bank extorted large sums from rich Armenians, practically at the revolver's mouth, Banker Karagivesian among them. But this is not likely to save Apik.

A moderate estimate of his fortune puts it at $10,000,000, and the Sultan would be flying in the face of Providence to let such a chance go without replenishing his coffers. Whatever may be Abdul Hamid's weakness in the matter of blood-letting, his piety is undoubted, and he would not be likely to offend Allah by neglecting to thoroughly bleed this particular Christian.

Millionaire Apik's factories, shops and villas and his fine palace overlooking the Bosphorus are now in the hands of the Sultan's confidential treason smellers They have planted and subsequently discovered compromising documents galore, so that virtually all that remains to be done is to find Apik Oundjian guilty in what passes in Turkey for due process of law, and then confiscate his property.

If he manages to keep his head on his shoulders he will be an exceptionally fortunate Armenian.



Russia, England and France May Settle the Turkish Question.

LONDON, Oct 3 — American ridicule having killed the chimerical triple alliance of the United States, Great Britain and Italy in joint action against Turkey, the alliance mongers have devised a new combination--Russia England and France. The report goes that Lord Salisbury has offered to hand over Constantinople to Russia on condition that England's occupation of Egypt is regular.

This arrangement has aroused the sarcasm of the Vienna press, which asks England how she would like it if any foreign power offered to "hand over" any British possession without consulting her. This, the Austrian papers say, would be no more insolent a proposal than for outsiders to distribute the Turkish dominions among one another while they ignored the existence of the Porte.

Some comment has been caused by the long silence of Sir William Vernon Harcourt, the leader of the opposition in the House of Commons, on the Turkish question. The Liverpool Courier now announces that he is engaged in most carefully preparing a speech which he will deliver in Monmouth next week. Sir William represents West Monmouthshire in the Commons. The Courier says that he intends to declare a new and effective policy regarding Turkey which France is likely to follow.

The women of France are preparing a monster petition to be presented to the Czarina on the occasion of her visit to Paris next week asking her majesty to exert hei influence with her husband to the end of obtaining the assent of the powers to Russia's deliverance of Armenia from Turkish rule.

Holdwater: While Apik Effendi appears to have been caught between a rock and a hard place, what if he were a revolutionary sympathizer? Too bad he didn't think of reporting the fact that he was being blackmailed the first go-round, even if he had decided to comply... otherwise, he could not have expected the Ottoman government to have simply released him without investigating, if he happened to get caught. Exorbitant bail, by the way, was and is not a practice restricted to the Ottomans. It would be interesting to learn exactly how much money was appropriated from this Armenian multi-millionaire, as the journalist simply and meanly speculated. (What he should have been asking is, how could an Ottoman-Armenian have grown so prosperous in a nation where the Armenians were supposedly so persecuted.)

As far as the second article it was nice for Austria-Hungary to have exposed the hypocrisy of the Allies. A few years later, Austria-Hungary would be caught playing by similar rules:

New York Times, Oct. 31, 1903


Austria and Russia Are Said Not to Have Consulted Other Powers Before Presenting the Note to Turkey.

LONDON TIMES—NEW YORK TIMES Special Cablegram. LONDON, Oct. 31.— Diplomatic circles in Constantinople, says The Times's correspondent in the Turkish capital, do not receive the Austro-Russian scheme enthusiastically on account both of the nature of the proposals and the manner in which the affair was managed.

The note was presented to the Porte on Oct. 22, but the text was not communicated by the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to his colleagues' till last Tuesday.

It is stated by the Austrian press that the consent of all the powers had been obtained to the proposals before they were communicated to the Porte, but there is reason to believe that this is a mistake, and that the two powers only took the. rest of those concerned into their confidence two days after the note was presented. They seem, remarks the correspondent, to regard themselves as successeurs, not as mandataires of the European concert, thus ruffling many susceptibilities and arousing a certain amount of resentment.

The Sofia correspondent of The Times says Austria and Russia are thought to have shown an unfortunate want of tact in their method of procedure. Their conduct, as well as certain features of their scheme, undoubtedly exposes them to the charge of self-seeking.

Armenian Revolutionists


Trenton Evening Times, Jan. 8, 1897


Their Hopeless Struggle Against the Turks the Cause of the Massacres.

Boston, Jan. 6. — A special meeting of the Woman's Board of Missions was held in the Park street church yesterday afternoon to listen to addresses by missionaries returned from Turkey Dr. Grace N. Kimball, formerly of the Van mission, in eastern Turkey, was the first speaker. She said she would speak plainly about the Armenian revolutionists. If they had been content to live as beasts of burden and slaves they would be safe from persecution. The young men, many of whom were educated in this country and Europe, formed clubs. They comprised but one per cent, of the Armenian population in Turkey. The great mass of Armenians are as much opposed to the revolutionary party as the Turks themselves, because they saw that the revolutionists' cause was a hopeless one, and tended only to bring destruction on themselves. Of the 100,000 Armenians who were butchered 99 per cent were people who knew nothing and cared nothing about revolution. Rev. W. A. Farnsworth, D.D., of Cesarea in western Turkey, gave the audience some conception of the extent of the Armenian massacres by comparing the loss in killed in some of the big battles of the civil war with the number killed in various places in Armenia by the Turks, showing that in many cases the Armenian loss was greater. Both speakers made appeals for aid for the Armenians.

Holdwater: Rev. Farnsworth. Sounds like an impartial source.

At least he did not go typically overboard with his estimate of the Armenian mortality of the mid-1890s, arriving at 100,000. Since the reverend received his information from Armenians and fellow missionaries, sources that regarded Muslim losses as invisible, of course the Armenian losses were going to appear greater. If they were greater, as they most likely were, the reasons had to do with the fact that when skirmishes were triggered in the "civil war" — pretty much always with the Armenians firing the first shot — the Armenians were simply outnumbered. Of course the Armenians would have gotten the worst of it. While certainly a good number of killed Armenians were innocent (99% has no basis in reality, however), much more of the same applied to the thousands of Muslim dead, the ones no one cared about.

Crafty Greece Only Waiting for the Right Moment


The North Adams Daily Transcript,
April 13, 1897


News From the European War Scene Today Shows that Crafty Greece Is Only Waiting the Right Moment. Why War is Delayed.

(Special Dispatch to the Transcript.) Athens April 13 —The trouble between Greece aud Turkey is now only a waiting game. Neither side wants to be first to begin the war.

The frontier situation is developing slowly for two reasons, bad weather and extreme cold, and because dispatches are being considerably delayed intentionally or otherwise. The condition of affairs is no less menacing, however, and open hostilities or a bacK down of one or the other or both countries cannot be much longer delayed.

Both Greece and Turkey are trying to avoid if possible being classed as the agressor in the conflict. It is an open secret here that by the end of the week at least 10,000 Greek irregulars will be in Macedonia, Albania and Epirus, thus making really successful steps in a war like direction before hardly a shot is fired.

It is acknowledged that Greece is gaining by every hour of delay, and is getting her troops in the best possible position for the opening of the war. This shows the shrewdness of the Greek leaders.

---- St. Petersburg, April 13 — The Novoe Vremya declares that all coercion of Greece on the part of the Powers will cease as soon as war is declared, because otherwise it would bear the character ot intervention in behalf ot lurkey. This will hasten Greece's action.

------- Larissa, April 13 — The invaders continue to blockade [Balt? ne]. It is reported that Turkish re-enforcements are now en route from [Diskata].

The remainder of the insurgents have taken up positions in the mountains. The latest details at hand are that the invaders dynamited the Turkish posts opposite [Phonika] and [Perliangin]. The troops here were kept standing under arms yesterday afternoon as it was feared that the raid would hasten hostilities. There has been an outbreak of smallpox among the Turks and many deaths are reported at [Damasi].


Turkish Report of the Invasion

Elassona, April 13 -The Turkish staff officer who was sent to [Kianis] by Edhem Pasha to ascertain definitely with respect to the invasion reports that the presence of Greek regulars among the invaders had been positively proved and that there is also good reason to believe that Greek officers of the regular army were in command. He states further that the bands be hidden during the daytime and sally forth at night to fire upon the Turkish troops. Edhem Pasha's staff are great ly puzzled by these attacks. His officers say let tne Greeks make war or keep still. It is reported that the Greeks had [?2] killed and the Turks 2 with 12 wounded. The latter belonged to the patrol posted on the edge of the forest where the Greeks were in hiding. They were picked off by sharpshooters. The report of the staff officer in question has been wired to Constantinople and a reply is anxiously awaited The Turkish forces here continue in excellent condition. The soldiers are obedient and willing while the officers are actively engaged from sunrise until late at night. Many of them are in the saddle 20 hours out of the 24.


Constantin to Inspect the Frontier. Athens April 13 — The Crown Prince Constantin will shortly leave Larissa to inspect the posts on the frontier. He will be accompanied by a battalion of infantrv and a squadron of cavalry.

It is reported here that a strong band equipped by the Ethnike hetairia is ready to enter Macedonia near Catterina and another to enter [Epirus] from the Island of Corfu.


Statement of Mustafa Bey

Washington, April 13 — In the course ot an intervieew with a press representative, Mustafa Bey the Turkish minister said, "It is true that some trouble has occurred at Tokat but the dispatches have greatly exaggerated the importance of the affair. Nevertheless, the governor of Tokat, the military commander of that place, the chief of police and seveial other officials had been removed and placed under arrest as as a preliminary step to their trial and punishment for not having been able to avert these troubles.

The Vali of Sivas said the minister has received formal orders to detect at any cost the perpetrators of the incident, to punish them with the utmost rigor of the law and to prevent a renewal of such regrettable acts. Beside a commission composed of high civil and military officers both Mussulmans and Christians selected from among prominent and impartial persons has been appointed and sent immediately under the presidency of his excellency Hassa Fehmi Pasha dlrector of the custom houses of the empire in order to make an inquiry on the spot and to try and punish the guilty parties in an exemplars manner.

The Armenian revolutionists, added the Turkish minister, are now seeking in every way to provoke the disturbance at different points of the empire with a view to increasing the embarrassments of the Turkish government, owing to the affairs of Crete and Greece. Consequently, all the provincial authorities have been urged to watch day and night that no acts likely to give rise to any disturbing incident among Mussulmans and Christians may occur.

Germans Aiding Turks


The Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette (Iowa), Apr. 03, 1897 (Also same-dated Manitoba Morning Free Press)


Keeping Bright in the Act of War by Aiding the Turks.

Constantinople, April 3 — It is stated on undoubted authority that the efficient manner in which the Turkish forces were mobilized on the Greek frontier is due to German officers.and it is added that all the plans of campaign intrusted to them to carry out have been prepared by able strategists in Berlin. The greatest confidence, therefore, is felt in military circles here as to the outcome of any conflict between Turkey and Greece. In official circles it is decided that a direct agreement between Turkey and Greece- would be hailed with the greatest satisfaction, by the British government.

According to a telegram received by tlie Turkish government, the Armenian revolutionists abroad intend to cause the resumption of rioting in Anatolia, about the middle of April, when the snows are melted. This is an intimation, that further massacres may be looked forward to at about the same time.


Armed Movement Against the Sultan

 Liverpool Courier, Jan. 14, 1897




Reuter's correspondent At Philippopolis writes under date of the 9th instant as follows: "This morning, in the principal streets of the city, a great number of placards printed in red ink in Turkish were found, and quickly torn down by the police. Similar placards have keen found also in all Turkich coffee- houses, and have created a great stir among Turks. The Turkish Consul, Ibrahim Fetih Bey, has complained to the Prefect against the placards, and this explains the activity of Ine police in suppressing them. They are issued by the Turkey Party, which has of late been increased by fresh arrivals from Constantinople. The following is a translation of passages of the placard in question:

"To the Faithful : That Sultan Hamid is mad is known to all ol us. Our religion prescribes to all true Mussulmans that they shall kill every mad dog they come across. The Young Turkey Party, which hitherto has abstained from bloodshed, has now decided to assume the title of 'Revolutionary,' and will use arms in future against the Sultan and his followers. We are prepared to meet every resistance on their part. Our duty now is to kill, to burn to ashes, and to ruin everything connected with the Palace of the Yildiz Kiosk. We shall blow it up towards the atars, whence it derives its name. Those who do not wish to join us and desire to save their lives let them hasten to the Baba Ali (Sublime Porte), and to the Konaks in the provinces and demand justice, and if they are refused their just rights then let them also take up arms and fight for their rights. Be not fearful. Follow the example of our compatriots, the Armenian revolutionists. You who have been trying to put down the Armenian revolt take the lead of it, and revolt against the tyranny which oppresses you. Tremble, oh Turks ! Inactivity on your part means faithlessness, and is unworthy of a true Mussulman. Revenge, revenge, is the cry of so many fathers and mothers who are groaning under the yoke of this cruel Government. We ask you to do your duty ; we shall do ours. With this call on you to do your duty w« relieve ourselves of a great responsibility. The hour to strike has come ; let every true Moslem do his duty."



Constantinople (via Philippopolis).Tuesday.
Advices from the Armenian, provinces describe the situation of the Armenian population as most precarious. Many families, having lost their chiefs; consist almost entirely of defenceless women and children, who live in daily expectation of being massacred by men encouraged by the example of outrages committed with impunity. Four thousand vilayete are said to be in this condition.



St. Petersburg, Wednesday. The "Novosti" to-day reports that 40,000 Armenians have emigrated from Turkey to Trans-Caucasia, where fresh parties are still expected from the vilayet of Van, and that the emigrants are in a terrible state of destitution.



Constantinople, Tuesday. The audience which Sir Ellis Ashmead Bartlett had of his Majesty the Sultan yesterday was a private one, aud lasted two hours. The Sultan expressed the most friendly sentiments towards England and the English people. His Majesty explained with much care the reforms which have been carried oat in the Eastern vilayets of Asia Minor, and which were being extended to the other provinces. He especially dwelt upon the appointment of Christian sub-Governors, the admission of Christians into the gendarmerie, and the careful inspection of the court of justice that is being made. The Sultan informed Sir Ellis that practical measures had also been taken for the re-building of the houses and churches in the villages, and for the distribution of relief to the suffering, which will he continued throughout the winter. His Majesty stated the most direct and positive orders had bsen given to all tho officials that the first attempts at violence should be immediately checked and the offenders punished. In spite of the enormous expense to which Turkey has been put of late in keeping over 400,000 men under arms, the Turkish Budget showed a surplus. His Majesty said the Government had no intention of interfering in any way with the service of the debt, or with the revenues assigned to the bondholders. The Sultan said that tranquillity now prevailed everywhere, and would be maintained and that prosperity would soon be completely restored to ail sections of hie people. A special commission, composed of very capable men, had just been appointed to supervise the choice and appointments of all officials, so that only the most worthy might be promoted ; and a special commission, consisting of two Europeans and two Turkish subjects, had likewise been appointed for the supervision and improvement of the finances. His Majesty trusted that his intentions would bo rightly judged by the English people from these practical acts of reform. After hia audience with the Sultan, Sir Ashmead Bartlett, who is accompanied by his private secretary, Mr. Wm. H. Bennnett, had a very interesting interview with Ghazi Daman Pasha, the hero of Plevna.

Armenian Revolutionists Defend Recent Bomb-Throwing


Cedar Rapids Eve Gazette, Aug. 23. 1897


Armenian Revolutionists Defend Recent Bomb-Throwing.

Constantinople, Aug. 23 — The foreign ambassadors here have received a circular letter from the Armenian Dashnak-Zutium committee almost identical with that sent to them in 1896, declaring that the Armenians are tired of waiting and are resolved to take action for the redress of their grievances.

Geneva, Aug. 23 — The Groshat, the organ of the Constantinople committee of the Armenian revolutionary federation, which is printed here, asserts that the recent explosions in Constantinople were the work of the committee, and says the committee is directing the movements of the parties who are fighting the Turks in the vilayet of Van.

"We are obliged," the Groshat says, "to resort to every possible means to carry on the struggle against such overwhelming odds. Revolution is the only source left us."

Sentenced to Death


Sandusky Star, Aug. 28, 1898


CONSTANTINOPLE, Aug. 25.— A dispatch from Van, Asia Minor, says eleven Armenian revolutionists have been condemned at that place. Two were sentenced to death and the others to imprisonment.

The Turk No Religious Persecutor

New York Times, Sept. 10, 1898

In Harper's Magazine for September, Mr. Sidney Whitman's article, "The Turk at Home," will give to many new ideas in regard to the vexed Armenian subject. In the first place the Turk, even if an official, is little given to talk. As far as the gift of the gab goes as represented by a French or German, or most partlcuarly by a Russian, the Ottoman Is nowhere. Said a Turkish friend to Mr. Whitman: "We are a taciturn people. We cannot defend ourselves in writing. We suffer rather In silence." Attacks on the Turkish Government, emanating in foreign papers, are there never noticed, "but there is certainly something to be said on the Turkish side. How many are the Armenians n Asiatic Turkey? According to reliable statistics some 800.000. They cannot be called a nation, and these are scattered "over an area half the size of Europe." Now what is their condition when compared with 5.000,000 Russian Jews cooped within the pale assigned to them by a strong Government," and that Government but yesterday begging for a period of eternal pence? Mr. Whitman writes that the Armenian revolutionists state that they cannot exist In Turkey on account of persecution "on religious grounds." The truth is that the Armenian language, creed, and schools are perfectly free in Turkey, and persistently interfered with in Russia, They accuse the Turk of religious fanaticism, whereas the high road from Trebizond to Erzeroum is lined on both sides with Christian monasteries and churches of various denominations." Is it generally known that for centuries Turkey has been the asylum of men of various creeds when they were tortured, burned, or beheaded in other parts of Europe. Mr. Whitman tells many facts relating to Turk and Armenian, and the influences of missions for good or bad on the latter.

The above (where the emphasis was Holdwater's) was embellished by a shorter variation in the Sept. 25, 1898 issue of the New York Times, adding:



The Turkish-Armenian revolutionists state that it is impossible to hope for anything but persecution on religious grounds from the Turk, says Sidney Whitman, writing In Harper's Magazine in defense of the Turk, whereas the Armenian language, creed, and schools are perfectly free In Turkey, and persistently Interfered with in Russia. They accuse the Turk of religious fanaticism whereas the highroad from Trebizond to Erzeroum is lined on both sides with Christian monasteries and churches of various denominations.

These Christian monasteries and churches have existed peacefully and unmolested, been protected even by imperial firman, throughout ages during which it was a capital offense in England for a Roman Catholic priest to read the mass; during which Irish Protestants ruthlessly slaughtered Catholics, regardless of age or sex; during which Jews were burned at the stake in Spain in their thousands, those that escaped flying to Turkey, where they found an asylum, during which the centre of Europe was so frightfully devastated by religious fanaticism that the dead were torn from their graves to feed the starving population.


Suspend... severe and harsh judgment of the (Turks)

The Jewish Criterion
, November 6, 1896, No. 14

Latest advices from the scene of the Turkish-Armenian troubles bring to us the information that matters are not as black as they are painted by the press reports. The "New York Herald" recently devoted several columns to the subject. From this treatment of the question it would appear that the muchly sympathized with Armenians were giving themselves up to agitations of a strongly revolutionary character. The natural result, therefore, was that the whole tribe was made to suffer. We have no means of knowing whether this latest report be true in every particular. The fact that it is made by authoritative sources, however, points to the additional fact that it may very likely be the truth. A religious body, as such, has no business to interfere with the political conditions of the country which provides it with shelter and refuge. The outrages, furthermore, were conveyed by anything but a reliable bureau to the outside world. So we must suspend our severe and harsh judgment of the Turkish government until we come into possession of all the necessary information. The majority of the persecuted may be unfortunate victims. But the original plotters are to blame for the exasperating condition of affairs. Racial prejudice and religions need but a little fanning to be converted from a spark into a blazing flame.

Emphasis Holdwater's:

Turkish Light on Massacres

The New York Times, December 4, 1895


Legation at Washington Declares Armenian Reports Are False.

WASHINGTON, Dec. 3.—Officials of the State Department who at first placed no reliance whatever in the reports of massacred Armenians in Asiatic Turkey are now disposed to attach some significance to the lack of information obtainable by American diplomatic and Consular agents in Turkey. These have had orders for over ten days to investigate and report upon the matter, and their dispatchees indicate that obstacles are placed in their way by the Turkish authorities. It is said at the State Department that the American Legation at Constantinople has sent no information regarding the alleged outrages, although sufficient time has elapsed under ordinary circumstances for Minister Terrell to have proof that the affair has been exaggerated.

It is understood that cabled dispatches have also been received from our Consul at Sivas. He is our representative nearest to the scene of the affair, and, so far, he has been unable to transmit more than a statement of the rumors that reach him.

Entire silence on the subject has been observed at the Turkish Legation in Washington until to-day, the Minister, Mavroyent Bey, being absent in New York. An official statement has this evening been given out at the legation which ascribes the recent troubles to agitators, originally from Roumania and Greece, and states that money is furnished by the London Armenian Committee, with the view of creating more "troubles." It is stated that is [sic; it] was the Armenians, Greek Christians, who started the revolt by attacking Mussulman villages, and that the Mussulmans had great difficulty in finding shelter near the City of Diarbekir. On the outbreak of these Armenian revolts, it is further stated by the Turkish Legation, "regular troops were immediately sent to the spot." It is asserted in reply to specific statements that thousands of Armenians, men, women, and children, were massacred by the Kurds, and that not more than seventy of this race of nomads were employed, and these simply as guides through the hilly regions. The legation adds:

"These facts show that, far from committing any cruelties, the regular troops succeeded in restoring peace and order. A further proof that there was no persecution of any sort is shown by the fact that peaceful Armenian villages, the inhabitants of which were in open revolt, were left in perfect security and unmolested during and after the military operations. Armenian revolutionists and their friends are therefore, the interested propagators of news without foundation in fact. Having revolted, they wish to hide their guilty actions under the cover of a supposed persecution. It is moreover proved that these Armenian insurgents had as comrades a few misguided Kurds."

Though no official confirmation can be obtained from the State Department, and the President's message is silent on the subject, there is a well-defined impression that the Turkish Government has given to the United States assurances similar to those given to the Government of Great Britain that these alleged outrages should be fully investigated.


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...Is to expose the mythological “Armenian genocide,” from the years 1915-16. A wartime tragedy involving the losses of so many has been turned into a politicized story of “exclusive victimhood,” and because of the prevailing prejudice against Turks, along with Turkish indifference, those in the world, particularly in the West, have been quick to accept these terribly defamatory claims involving the worst crime against humanity. Few stop to investigate below the surface that those regarded as the innocent victims, the Armenians, while seeking to establish an independent state, have been the ones to commit systematic ethnic cleansing against those who did not fit into their racial/religious ideal: Muslims, Jews, and even fellow Armenians who had converted to Islam. Criminals as Dro, Antranik, Keri, Armen Garo and Soghoman Tehlirian (the assassin of Talat Pasha, one of the three Young Turk leaders, along with Enver and Jemal) contributed toward the deaths (via massacres, atrocities, and forced deportation) of countless innocents, numbering over half a million. What determines genocide is not the number of casualties or the cruelty of the persecutions, but the intent to destroy a group, the members of which  are guilty of nothing beyond being members of that group. The Armenians suffered their fate of resettlement not for their ethnicity, having co-existed and prospered in the Ottoman Empire for centuries, but because they rebelled against their dying Ottoman nation during WWI (World War I); a rebellion that even their leaders of the period, such as Boghos Nubar and Hovhannes Katchaznouni, have admitted. Yet the hypocritical world rarely bothers to look beneath the surface, not only because of anti-Turkish prejudice, but because of Armenian wealth and intimidation tactics. As a result, these libelous lies, sometimes belonging in the category of “genocide studies,” have become part of the school curricula of many regions. Armenian scholars such as Vahakn Dadrian, Peter Balakian, Richard Hovannisian, Dennis Papazian and Levon Marashlian have been known to dishonestly present only one side of their story, as long as their genocide becomes affirmed. They have enlisted the help of "genocide scholars," such as Roger Smith, Robert Melson, Samantha Power, and Israel Charny… and particularly  those of Turkish extraction, such as Taner Akcam and Fatma Muge Gocek, who justify their alliance with those who actively work to harm the interests of their native country, with the claim that such efforts will help make Turkey more" democratic." On the other side of this coin are genuine scholars who consider all the relevant data, as true scholars have a duty to do, such as Justin McCarthy, Bernard Lewis, Heath Lowry, Erich Feigl and Guenter Lewy. The unscrupulous genocide industry, not having the facts on its side, makes a practice of attacking the messenger instead of the message, vilifying these professors as “deniers” and "agents of the Turkish government." The truth means so little to the pro-genocide believers, some even resort to the forgeries of the Naim-Andonian telegrams or sources  based on false evidence, as Franz Werfel’s The Forty Days of Musa Dagh. Naturally, there is no end to the hearsay "evidence" of the prejudiced pro-Christian people from the period, including missionaries and Near East Relief representatives, Arnold Toynbee, Lord Bryce, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, and so many others. When the rare Westerner opted to look at the issues objectively, such as Admirals Mark Bristol and Colby Chester, they were quick to be branded as “Turcophiles” by the propagandists. The sad thing is, even those who don’t consider themselves as bigots are quick to accept the deceptive claims of Armenian propaganda, because deep down people feel the Turks are natural killers and during times when Turks were victims, they do not rate as equal and deserving human beings. This is the main reason why the myth of this genocide has become the common wisdom.